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You need to annotate – the summaries in red

There is a big difference between annotate and summary-
I need you to take all the articles in red and form an annotation- 250 words PER article. 

Annotations are DESCRIPTIVE and critical assessments of literature that help the researchers evaluate text and determine relevancy in relation to a research project. Annotation helps evaluate the source material for possible use later. EACH ARTICLE needs an annotation of (250 words) THAT INCLUDES IMPORTANT !! DETAILS about each article source

Problem Statement- complete problem statement

Running head: DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 1

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 3

How Black Men Are Perceived In Leadership Roles and The Barriers They Face

Your Name Goes Here

Grand Canyon University

Date

How Black Men Are Perceived In Leadership Roles and The Barriers They Face

Brooms, D. R., Franklin, W., Clark, J. S., & Smith, M. (2021). ‘it’s more than just mentoring’: Critical mentoring black and Latino males from college to the community. Race Ethnicity and Education, 24(2), 210–228. https://doi.org/10.1080/13613324.2018.1538125

Male adolescents of color are typically seen as ‘problems’ that need to be solved while also ‘ignoring their agency and thereby restricting the ways in which they are imagined, engaged, and educated’ (Baldridge 2014; 440). It is important to consider how young people are positioned in schools and the educational chances they have. In addition, how students interact with the school and the community has a significant impact on their self-image and future plans.

It is important to note that some of these schools were not designed with students of color in mind, according to Yosso (2006)

According to Yosso (2006), resistive capital is based on a “history of resistance to oppression in Communities of Color” and refers to “knowledges and skills gained through conduct that confronts injustice.”

For some men, being youth mentors showed them that they had a lot of social and family capital. Mentoring gave them a greater work purpose and a stronger sense of connection to their communities.

Often, Black and Latino males in schools are treated with harsh authority and dominance.

The men’s willingness to give back to their communities is notable, especially in light of the narrative that Black and Latino males must ‘leave’ their neighborhoods in order to be successful.

Men’s experiences and aspirations also showed their growing interactions with youngsters and their intention to help the social and emotional development of young people In especially for Black and Latino guys in K-12 schools, this form of interaction is critical due to their frequent exposure to crises and inadequate narratives (e.g. see Brooms et al. 2018; Brown 2011; Dumas 2016; Noguera 2008).

Haynes, C., Taylor, L., Mobley, S. D., & Haywood, J. (2020). Existing and resisting: The pedagogical realities of black, critical men and women faculty. The Journal of Higher Education, 91(5), 698–721. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221546.2020.1731263

Few studies examine how Black faculty members’ teaching techniques affect the lives of Black teachers at mostly white institutions. Fries-Britt & Griffin say that there are harmful and controlling images that show Black men as hypermasculine athletes or entertainers. They also say that Black masculinity is criminal, heterosexual, and hypersexual, which is bad for people of color. To retain their manhood in Black and White hetero-CIS normative academic (and non-academic) contexts, Black gay men in teaching jobs may adopt racist tropes of Black masculinity. Black teachers face hostility and questions about their credibility when they teach in the classroom.

To retain their manhood in Black and White hetero-CIS normative academic (and non-academic) contexts, Black gay men in teaching jobs may adopt racist tropes of Black masculinity (Alexander, 2005). Our findings show that we embody resistance language that, when read by pupils, invalidates our humanity. In what is known as respectability politics, Black people police their own and each other’s gender or racial presentation (Higginbotham, 1993; Lee & Hicken, 2016). So that we might be allowed in White/majority environments, some of us had to adhere to prevailing ideals of acceptable or “good” Black performances. Research revealed that we underestimated the cost of teaching through the resistance text we embodied (i.e., racist and sexually demonizing constructions of Black womanhood and Black manhood).

Roberts, S. O., Weisman, K., Lane, J. D., Williams, A., Camp, N. P., Wang, M., Robison, M., Sanchez, K., & Griffiths, C. (2020). God as a white man: A psychological barrier to conceptualizing black people and women as leadership worthy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 119(6), 1290–1315. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000233

In 2018-2019, only 51 heads at NAIS schools self-identified as women of color. Affinity-based mentoring and leadership programs have created opportunities for women and people of color to connect professionally and grow their networks. Career sponsorship is one key strategy that could help accelerate the upward career mobility. White males continue to hold a disproportionate number of headships in independent schools. Sponsorship is the act of advocating for and advancing a high performer in a professional network.

Women and people of color inevitably experience gender and racial discrimination in independent schools. A survey of independent school heads gathered information about school heads and their sponsors. Seventy-three percent of sponsors were current or retired heads of school, and 91% had been involved with the school for 20 or more years. White heads of school were more likely to have had white sponsors (83%). Head of color reported greater cross-racial sponsor-protege relationships.

There are significant differences in how much access heads of color have to more powerful insider sponsors. This lack of exposure to leaders of color may influence how future heads and sponsors of color disrupt or maintain the racial disparities. White sponsors have a responsibility to challenge their biases and promote more people of color to headships. The female heads of color offered valuable insights into the benefits of being sponsored prior to their first headships. Effective sponsors engaged in multiple activities that prepared and positioned them for securing headships.

One head of school shared the profound influence her female sponsor had on her career trajectory: Some accounts say male sponsors created opportunities for women of color to advance professionally in independent schools. For some female heads of color, establishing a fully supportive relationship with a sponsor proved to be challenging. Differences in perspectives on race, gender, sexual orientation and generational outlook can compromise the quality of relationships with sponsors.

Robinson, D. (2020). “we got y’all!”: Leading and supporting black male teacher trajectories. Peabody Journal of Education, 95(5), 532–548. https://doi.org/10.1080/0161956x.2020.1828688

While practitioners may explain success differences in schools, such knowledge is insufficient until it is combined with community statistics that suggest systemic neglect, which are available. deBray et al. (2019) conducted a study of Black, white, and Hispanic students in public schools and discovered that 31% of Black students, 10% of white students, and 26% of Hispanic students live in poverty, respectively. In addition, 33% of Black students and 57% of Hispanic students live with married parents, compared to 73 percent of white students (deBray et al., 2019). When viewed through the perspective of objective facts, these numbers present a surface-level deficiency lens that harkens back to a time when Black families and communities were pathologized as a social problem.It is supported by these facts that all students, regardless of race, enter schools with equal human and material resources, and that an individual’s personal or social resources cannot tip the balances in his or her favor.Years of racial discrimination, racism, and abuse have led to inequality. Black and white households have a 97.5 percent wealth gap (deBray et al., 2019) and a 35.2 percent gap in median income (Pew Research Center, 2018).

This inequality can be easily seen in schools. White students who have more money have more educational options, which is why there was a 61% to 49% drop in the number of white students in public schools from 2000 to 2015. (deBray et al., 2019). DeBray et al. (2019) say that only 5% of white students attend schools with more than 75% students of color, compared to 60% of Hispanic students and 58% of Black students in 2015. This shows that schools are still very racially segregated. This means that more and more schools are becoming more segregated, and those with money are using their money to keep away from students of color.

The U.S. Department of Education (2016) found that Black teachers made up just 7% of the 2012 teaching workforce, compared to 82% of white teachers. It’s only 2 percent of the 7 percent Black teaching staff that is made up of Black men (U.S. Department of Education, 2016).

Incorporating racism and race into the way society is built makes it easier for wealthy and working-class whites to get what they want through education, to the detriment of historically marginalized groups (Delgado & Stefancic, 2007; Ladson-Billings & Tate, 1995).

American schools give Black kids a curriculum that doesn’t give them a sense of who they are outside of images of slavery and alienation.

A theory called critical race theory says that race and racism are a part of American life all the time, not just when they happen (Delgado & Stefancic, 2007; Ladson-Billings & Tate, 1995).

As Black male teachers, they find themselves in a predicament when confronted with institutional laws and procedures that dictate what and how knowledge is taught and how choices are made. They must figure out how to live as both an agent and a double agent inside the school system (Gist, 2017). While dealing with Black males and protecting white property, Black male teachers frequently find themselves in the position of being the disciplinarian in their schools. As a result of this, their authoritative performance styles are transferred and utilized against the same students they were hired to serve (Brockenbrough, 2015; Brown, 2009; Gist, 2017).

The lack of Black male instructors is not due to a lack of available teaching opportunities on the employment market for black men. There appears to be an unspoken presumption that, despite the fact that research has repeatedly demonstrated the benefits of having Black male instructors, the need is more subjective than genuine. Black male instructors are underrepresented in the teaching profession, according to Bianco et al. (2011a). They argue that this is due in part to a failure to affirm Black men during their education experiences.

When compared to their white colleagues, black male teachers have a greater sense of purpose, which increases their willingness to remain in the field.

Black men who want to be teachers are more likely to do so. They also see education as an opportinity to mentor and encourage young black children to see a way out of bad situations in their lives.

Instructors of color, particularly black male teachers, might serve as surrogate families for students of color who are experiencing difficulties in their scholastic pursuits.

Because Black male teachers are frequently from the region or a context that is similar to where they teach, their work is frequently an extension of their dedication to the community in which they educate.

Teaching may be used as a liberating act to prepare pupils for life in a hostile society

According to Bridges (2011), even the act of teaching puts black male instructors in the position of engaging in acts of resistance. Black guys who want to teach are attending the same institutions where Black pupils like themselves have historically been marginalized. As a result of being under pressure to produce a watered-down, marginalized curriculum, Black male instructors are soon exposed to the realization that educational systems are not set up for their success (Bridges, 2011; Gist, 2017; Pabon, 2016).

School atmosphere and culture benefit from the presence of Black male instructors. One study found a 17 percent difference in initial reading scores and a 1.75 percent yearly gap growth from kindergarten to fifth grade among Black kids when they were taught by at least one Black teacher. Lindsay and Hart (2017) found a statistically significant difference in suspension rates between white female teachers and black male teachers, with 16.1 percent and 12.7 percent, respectively, for white female teachers and black male teachers.

Although being a Black male teacher promotes visual connectivity, it is not sufficient to simply be Black (Warren, 2014). For example, as illustrated by Gist (2017)’s idea of systemic linkages and Pabon (2016)’s concept of schooling out, a reproductive system empowers its instructors to act as agents of state. So when Black male instructors match their methods with the state’s intended outcomes, they are contributing to the marginalization of Black

Critical race theory says that counternarratives are told together as a way for historically marginalized people to write themselves and their realities into the world.

The findings also add to the literature that says that Black male teachers make other Black male teachers.Participants’ personal insights on the issue of customized insights demonstrate that the teaching methods and performances of Black male teachers have the potential to influence students’ life trajectories.Black male teachers learn more than just how to teach when they have Black male teachers. They also learn how to protect and care for Black males in hostile school systems. “Black students work better when they know that you care about them.”

Woodson, A. N., Jones, J., & Gowder, S. (2020). ‘the world they’ve been born into’: Black male teachers on blackness, masculinities and leadership. Race Ethnicity and Education, 23(3), 307–326. https://doi.org/10.1080/13613324.2019.1663964

During slavery, we don’t talk about how Black men have been the brains behind all of the major scientific developments. No one talks about them as inventors or engineers except for maybe George Washington Carver or Charles Drew. There are a lot of textbooks out there that make it seem like this country doesn’t exist. For Black people, it just needs to be made to live.

The phrase “afterlife of slavery” is used in Afropessimist ontologies to refer to this state in which the economic, political, and theological ideologies used to justify Black chattel slavery have not been (and will not be) disentangled from the global imperial consciousness. In summary, since the inception of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, Black communities’ identities have been defined in terms of servitude. This comprises sexual and gender identities, as well as the complex ways in which these characteristics interact with race, ethnic origin, and national identification. This made Black emancipation less important to Black women and people who are gay or lesbian (p. 221). Will Woodson and Pabon (2016) say it’s important to give attention to the voices of people who aren’t getting the attention they deserve in education research.

Black men have been excluded from white, heteropatriarchal ideas about how to be a citizen. Will’s first encounter with a Black guy educator took place while he was in college. We looked for tales of privilege and exclusion, which we found at Cosbyology events. Students report feeling alienated or distanced from the scant portrayals of Black males that are available throughout their educational career. We think a lot of people, not just Black men, are interested in Black masculinist history because it looks like the white, patriarchal monumentalist narratives that are so common in social studies classes.

What significance did your being a Black guy have to you at that particular time? Do you believe it had an impact on the people around it? as well as: What insights into your own identity gleaned from that experience? What can you take away from this experience?


Degree

The Degree that is being pursued is the Doctoral of Education in Organizational Leadership with emphasis in Organizational Development.

Research Focus

Underrepresentation of black males in leadership positions, as well as the challenges they face in a society marked by widening racial inequality, are the primary focus of my current research.

Feasibility of Research Problem

Black men are subjected to hostility and have their leadership credibility called into question. Because of the long history of racism and prejudice, black males must contend with negative views of themselves that portray them as hypermasculine and other racist clichés. In the field of organizational leadership in the education sector, black male educators are continuously challenged to demonstrate that they are as knowledgeable as their white counterparts. This is a researchable topic because it may be used to determine whether or not black males in the education sector are offered less opportunities for development to leadership positions and how they deal with the obstacles they confront while working in an educational institution.

Problem Statement

A problem statement emerges from reading and studying the literature around a topic. Consider these dimensions of the problem you are investigating: what is known, what needs to be known, and what is the significance. To provide context, begin with how the problem has already been investigated. Next, address what has not been examined about the specific issue you want to address. Finally, discuss why this is an important problem that needs to be investigated, that is what is the benefit of studying this specific problem. (100-150 words)

Defense of Article Selection

My five chosen articles were exceptional in that they not only emphasized the numerous issues that black men in leadership roles confront, but they also revealed a common thread that ran across all five stories selected for annotation. There is a fundamental problem with the current leadership system. True leadership entails influencing, inspiring, and aiding others in becoming their best selves while also developing their abilities and achieving their goals, all at the same time. Leadership also necessitates empathy in order to better understand others around you, as well as the ability to build trust and develop relationships with them. But even with the features that organizations expect of one another, racism and discrimination against people of color, particularly black men, continue to be a significant target. It is common for the systems of leadership and mentorship in the education sector to overlap when it comes to organizational leadership in the sector. Consider the faculty system, which is concerned with maintaining professional standards and effective teaching. Black male teachers constitute barely 2 percent of the overall 7 percent of black instructors men and women; this compares to an incredible 82% of white teachers. A pleasant school environment can be defined as one that encourages communication within an organization’s organizational framework. When the challenges experienced by black male teachers are not addressed, suspicion and mutual antagonism develop, resulting in an educational climate that is not favorable to learning. Not only did the pieces provide excellent insight and analysis into important obstacles affecting the advancement of black male leaders, but they also provided a platform for discussion and debate. The destructive and controlling images also portray black men as hypermasculine and suggest that black masculinity is criminal, which is detrimental to black men’s self-esteem and ability to succeed in life (haynes, 2020). African-American male students in schools are subjected to strong authority and dominance (brooms, 2021). The compelling information that supports this issue begins a discussion about the black create stereotypes of black masculinity that are prevalent in the black community (haynes, 2020). In addition, black men have been excluded from white heteropatriarchal beliefs about what it means to be a citizen in the United States (woodson, 2020) When compared to their white male counterparts, there is a considerable disparity in the amount of access black males have to more prominent internal sponsors, and the lack of exposure to leaders of color has an impact on racial disparities in education (roberts, 2020) Lastly and most obviously, inequality can be seen in schools, where black male teachers find themselves in a predicament when confronted with institutional laws and procedures that dictate what and how knowledge is taught, as well as what decisions are made in order to benefit students of color (Robinson, 2020).

Running head: DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 1

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 3

BLACK WOMEN IN LEADERSHIP OVERCOMING MICROAGRESSION IN THE WORK PLACE

Your Name Goes Here

Grand Canyon University

Date

BLACK WOMEN IN LEADERSHIP OVERCOMING MICROAGRESSION IN THE WORK PLACE

Allen, A. (2020). The Black Woman’s Math Problem: Exploring the resilience of black women who lead in the United States Federal Government. Journal of African American Studies, 24(4), 530–548. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12111-020-09498-z

This article focuses on the leadership roles and hurdles faced by African American women who are currently in positions of leadership. There is a long history of White men driving and being settled in the high degrees of business, the board, and political positions which is characteristic of a practice that limits Black Women’s ascent to senior administration and the executives positions. To raise awareness about Black women’s leadership positions and empowerment, this article aims to affect necessary change. Despite the fact that African American women have a long history of engaging in leadership activities, they have been excluded from the cycle of advancement in the labor field. Jim Crow Laws and Black Codes restricted many civil liberties, including the ability to obtain certain employment or pursue education at various institutions.

Being an African American woman is a distinct experience since race and gender are social and cultural constructs strongly tied to racism and sexism and entrenched in discrimination. three critical abilities help Black Women cope in difficult situations – emotional intelligence, genuineness, and agility – As a result of this intersectionality, rigid discrimination practices can hurt and limit African American women’s growth and opportunities to become leaders in organizations. The experiences of women of color are more intense than the experiences of White women and men (Williams, 2014), according to Williams (2014). Kegan (1994) defined self-authorship as having the internal ability to make your own decisions, values, and beliefs. Self-authorship is a process that requires regular and systematic reflection on both personal and professional experiences.

This is especially important for people from groups that have been excluded from leadership, such as African American women. Women of African descent must make sense of their own history and experiences in the present and future to establish their professional identities and perspectives of the world. Black women have used numerous weapons to overcome adversity throughout the ages, but it occurred to me that one of our greatest weapons has been resilience

Corpuz, E., Due, C., & Augoustinos, M. (2020). Caught in Two Worlds: A critical review of culture and gender in the leadership literature. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 14(12), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12571

As of 2018, 48.5 percent of the world’s workforce is made up of women. The glass ceiling metaphor was first widely used to describe the challenges to leadership that women face throughout their careers. While White/European American women and Black/African American women face similar gender barriers, the factors that affect their success in the workplace are fundamentally different. There is a critical need for further study on CALD women in leadership positions.

When examining the root of bias, a research could use the term “angry Black female stereotype,” like in the instance of one respondent who highlighted that views of aggression were tied to gender and perceptions of anger were linked to race or ethnicity. CaLD women emphasize skillfully navigating their identities through shifting conditions, locales, professional connections, and scenarios. Having a strong sense of self, in particular a strong and resilient self-image, helped them build a strong foundation for the difficult and at times hostile situations they encountered on their way to becoming a leader, according to the CaLD women. Understanding who they are, maintaining that identity, and modifying or adjusting it as needed is critical to their leadership growth, say the Black and Asian American female graduates of the California Institute of Design (CALD).

MORRIS, T. H. U.-N. G. A., & STEVENSON, H. O. W. A. R. D. C. (2020). BUILDING UP: Changing Gender and Racial Disparities in Independent School Leadership Will Involve Examining the Pipeline of Emerging Leaders. New Research Finds That Sponsorship May Be One of the Most Effective Strategies to Ensure That More Women and People of Color Are Appointed to Headships, 80(1), 86–93.

In 2018-2019, only 51 heads at NAIS schools self-identified as women of color. Affinity-based mentoring and leadership programs have created opportunities for women and people of color to connect professionally and grow their networks. Career sponsorship is one key strategy that could help accelerate the upward career mobility. White males continue to hold a disproportionate number of headships in independent schools. Sponsorship is the act of advocating for and advancing a high performer in a professional network. Women and people of color inevitably experience gender and racial discrimination in independent schools. A survey of independent school heads gathered information about school heads and their sponsors. Seventy-three percent of sponsors were current or retired heads of school, and 91% had been involved with the school for 20 or more years. White heads of school were more likely to have had white sponsors (83%). Head of color reported greater cross-racial sponsor-protege relationships. There are significant differences in how much access heads of color have to more powerful insider sponsors. This lack of exposure to leaders of color may influence how future heads and sponsors of color disrupt or maintain the racial disparities. White sponsors have a responsibility to challenge their biases and promote more people of color to headships. The female heads of color offered valuable insights into the benefits of being sponsored prior to their first headships. Effective sponsors engaged in multiple activities that prepared and positioned them for securing headships. One head of school shared the profound influence her female sponsor had on her career trajectory: Some accounts say male sponsors created opportunities for women of color to advance professionally in independent schools. For some female heads of color, establishing a fully supportive relationship with a sponsor proved to be challenging. Differences in perspectives on race, gender, sexual orientation and generational outlook can compromise the quality of relationships with sponsors.

Roberts, S. O., Weisman, K., Lane, J. D., Williams, A., Camp, N. P., Wang, M., Robison, M., Sanchez, K., & Griffiths, C. (2020). God as a white man: A psychological barrier to conceptualizing black people and women as leadership worthy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 119(6), 1290–1315. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000233

This article focuses on the leadership roles and hurdles faced by African American women who are currently in positions of leadership. There is a long history of White men driving and being settled in the high degrees of business, the board, and political positions which is characteristic of a practice that limits Black Women’s ascent to senior administration and the executives positions. To raise awareness about Black women’s leadership positions and empowerment, this article aims to affect necessary change. Despite the fact that African American women have a long history of engaging in leadership activities, they have been excluded from the cycle of advancement in the labor field. Jim Crow Laws and Black Codes restricted many civil liberties, including the ability to obtain certain employment or pursue education at various institutions.

Being an African American woman is a distinct experience since race and gender are social and cultural constructs strongly tied to racism and sexism and entrenched in discrimination. three critical abilities help Black Women cope in difficult situations – emotional intelligence, genuineness, and agility – As a result of this intersectionality, rigid discrimination practices can hurt and limit African American women’s growth and opportunities to become leaders in organizations. The experiences of women of color are more intense than the experiences of White women and men (Williams, 2014), according to Williams (2014). Kegan (1994) defined self-authorship as having the internal ability to make your own decisions, values, and beliefs. Self-authorship is a process that requires regular and systematic reflection on both personal and professional experiences.

This is especially important for people from groups that have been excluded from leadership, such as African American women. Women of African descent must make sense of their own history and experiences in the present and future to establish their professional identities and perspectives of the world.

Sales, S., Galloway Burke, M., & Cannonier, C. (2019). African American women leadership across contexts. Journal of Management History, 26(3), 353–376. https://doi.org/10.1108/jmh-04-2019-0027

This article focuses on the leadership roles and hurdles faced by African American women who are currently in positions of leadership. There is a long history of White men driving and being settled in the high degrees of business, the board, and political positions which is characteristic of a practice that limits Black Women’s ascent to senior administration and the executive’s positions. To raise awareness about Black women’s leadership positions and empowerment, this article aims to affect necessary change. Despite the fact that African American women have a long history of engaging in leadership activities, they have been excluded from the cycle of advancement in the labor field. Jim Crow Laws and Black Codes restricted many civil liberties, including the ability to obtain certain employment or pursue education at various institutions.

Being an African American woman is a distinct experience since race and gender are social and cultural constructs strongly tied to racism and sexism and entrenched in discrimination. three critical abilities help Black Women cope in difficult situations – emotional intelligence, genuineness, and agility – As a result of this intersectionality, rigid discrimination practices can hurt and limit African American women’s growth and opportunities to become leaders in organizations. The experiences of women of color are more intense than the experiences of White women and men (Williams, 2014), according to Williams (2014). Kegan (1994) defined self-authorship as having the internal ability to make your own decisions, values, and beliefs. Self-authorship is a process that requires regular and systematic reflection on both personal and professional experiences.

This is especially important for people from groups that have been excluded from leadership, such as African American women. Women of African descent must make sense of their own history and experiences in the present and future to establish their professional identities and perspectives of the world.


Degree

The Degree that is being pursued is the Doctoral of Education in Organizational Leadership with emphasis in Organizational Development.

Research Focus

Black women are continually navigating their identities, modifying their positions, and adjusting their circumstances in order to avoid being held back in their leadership development. As a result, black women are underrepresented in occupations that provide chances for professional advancement.

Feasibility of Research Problem

This topic is viable, and it is worth researching. Using qualitative measures, this problem allows the researcher to identify what internal and external characteristics influence black women in a corporate setting in terms of leadership roles and empowerment. Yes there is a need for this type of study, understanding exactly how current black leaders empower themselves in the face of workplace discrimination and microaggressions. The proximity to the data source is unknown at this time.

Problem Statement

A problem statement emerges from reading and studying the literature around a topic. Consider these dimensions of the problem you are investigating: what is known, what needs to be known, and what is the significance. To provide context, begin with how the problem has already been investigated. Next, address what has not been examined about the specific issue you want to address. Finally, discuss why this is an important problem that needs to be investigated, that is what is the benefit of studying this specific problem. (100-150 words)

Defense of Article Selection

The five articles chosen for annotation were exceptional in that they not only pointed out the various issues that black women in leadership positions are dealing with, but they also demonstrated a commonality across all five articles, demonstrating that there is a real problem with the structure of leadership in general. True leadership development entails influencing, inspiring, and assisting people in becoming their best selves while simultaneously developing their talents and attaining their goals. However, even with the characteristics that are required of each other in organizations, racism and prejudice against people of color, particularly black women, are still very much in evidence. The papers not only provided excellent insight and analysis on a number of important topics in the growth of black women leaders, but they also included recommendations for further reading. In the fictional character “Sarah,” who represents the Black woman’s leadership experience in the United States federal government, regardless of her title and position, she found it difficult to find acceptance in her authentic identity and leadership style amongst her peers due to her race and gender (Allen, 2020). Morris and Stevenson (2020) addressed how racial and gender diversity continue to be a barrier, and how it is critical to develop leadership that reflects our diverse population to be successful. Another article that delved into greater detail on the psychological barriers that our society may have towards the roles of women and men in relation to the role of leadership was found to be quite similar to the one mentioned above (Roberts et al., 2020). With the publication of the article “God as a White Man,” new light was shed on the psychological question of “Are White Men Perceived as more suitable for leadership because God is Conceptualized as White?” Roberts and colleagues (Roberts et al., 2020). The conversation about why black women are discriminated against in leadership positions and do not receive the same degree of respect as their white male colleagues begins with some interesting information to support this point. Black women in leadership positions confront numerous obstacles in comparison to other women, and they continue to face the same difficulties today, despite increasing opportunities for advancement in the workplace (Sales et al., 2019). Regardless of the fact that black women are disregarded, marginalized, undervalued, and disrespected, there is hope (Sales et al., 2019). The fact that black women are still able to overcome these obstacles is due to the various leadership skills they have acquired, which allow them to modify their identities as needed in order to go on with their leadership development and achievement (Corpuz et al., 2020). All five papers come to the same conclusion: social identity, power structures, and leadership are all extremely influential in one’s leadership experience, and this is true across the board.

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