Begin with your First Half of the Annotated Bibliography from Step 6. Incorporate all feedback from your professor on Step 6 to strengthen the First Half of your Annotated Bibliography. Carry that fee

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Begin with your First Half of the Annotated Bibliography from Step 6. Incorporate all feedback from your professor on Step 6 to strengthen the First Half of your Annotated Bibliography.

Carry that feedback forward into the following steps.

2) Search the UMGC Library for 1 more scholarly journal article on your chosen topic. These article must come from the UMGC Library. Review Step 1 if needed.

3) Search the internet / web for 1 more article on your topic. Review Step 2 if needed. Again it is acceptable to include subpar sources because it is valuable to determine why a source is not a good source. However, there are sites not allowed for this assignment: See Unsuitable Websites below, and do not use encyclopedias.

4) Cite each new source in Chicago Style Bibliographic Form. Reminder for your new sources: Do not use citation generators for Chicago. Virtually all of them place the year incorrectly. Instead create your own citations. Review Step 3 if needed.

5) Incorporate each new source alphabetically into your existing Annotated Bibliography.

6) Format your work. Below each new citation (single space), indent the first line and double space your annotations as shown here. This is the same form as in Step 6.

7) Compose your annotations for each new source in narrative paragraphs. Refer to the Example Annotated Bibliography examples under Step 6.

Each annotation will be at least 150-200 words and will include 9 items:

Item 1: Author Background – What are the author’s credentials? Where does the author work? Does the author have other publications by credible publishers? Is the author affiliated with a respected organization?

Item 2: Publishing Organization Background – Is the publisher a peer-reviewed, scholarly journal? Is the publisher an academic press? Is the publisher a website cited by respected sources? Is the site affiliated with a respected organization?

Item 3: Thesis / Argument – Use your professor’s feedback on Step 4 – What does the author argue? Identify the thesis by completing this statement: The author argues that _____.This will help ensure that you capture the thesis.

Item 4: Main Points – In 2-3 sentences, briefly note the main points. These will usually appear as supports for the thesis.

Item 5: Evidence – What evidence does the author use? Is this evidence credible?

Item 6: Degree of Bias – Use your professor’s feedback on Step 5 – How biased is this source? Does the author acknowledge and explain their bias? What are the author’s goals? Who is the intended audience? These questions will help you in determining bias.

Item 7: Accuracy – Use lateral reading as addressed in Step 2 to determine how accurate the source appears to be. You might not be able to determine this authoritatively if the topic is not well covered online. If that is the case, include a statement to that effect.

Item 8: Comparison to Other Sources – What general trends do you see in your sources? For example, are there key areas of agreement or disagreement? Is one source more biased than the others? Or do you find generally balanced approaches in your sources? Do all of your sources share the same assumptions? Are there new approaches to old evidence? You do not have to answer all of these questions for this item. These questions should serve as a guide for how to address this item fully.

Item 9: Assessment of Suitability for Academic Research – State your assessment of quality clearly by choosing is or is not and completing this statement: This source is / is not suitable for academic research because _____.You may find the evaluation criteria provided by the UMGC Library useful. https://www.umgc.edu/current-students/learning-resources/writing-center/writing-resources/evaluating-sources.cfm

Attached it what was previously done. Now it’s the Full, Revised, Polished Annotated Bibliography.

Begin with your First Half of the Annotated Bibliography from Step 6. Incorporate all feedback from your professor on Step 6 to strengthen the First Half of your Annotated Bibliography. Carry that fee
Name HIST 125 Professor Annotated Bibliography Date Cyber Security Cyber security of a power grid: State-of-the-art Author and publisher information The authors, Hahn Adam L., Liu Chenching, and Chih-Che Sun, are accomplished researchers at the school of electrical engineering and computer science at a reputable academic institution, Washington State University. The paper was published by Elsevier Ltd in the International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems (JEPE). This is a peer-reviewed journal focusing on research on electrical and electronic engineering technologies. Elsevier is a renowned publisher of academic journals and articles. Thesis The authors argue that cyber-attacks pose significant threats to physical infrastructure such as power grids and propose solutions to improve power grids’ security. Main Points and evidence According to the paper, increased attacks on protected networks worldwide show that cybercriminals have enhanced their capabilities to access sensitive and secured data. The Authors give an example of a cyber-attack on the Ukrainian power grid to highlight the value of the research. This illustrates the reality of cyber threats to power systems. The authors provide credible evidence about the Ukrainian attack by reviewing reports about the event published by two power companies, the SANS institute and Electricity Information Sharing and Analysis Center (EISAC). Degree of Bias According to the author, the United States government supported the research under the Department of Energy. Thus, the study’s findings might be biased to comply with the government policies on issues such as climate change and competition between the United States and China. Accuracy According to the publishing journal, the authors are well-versed in electrical and computer science engineering. Thus, the paper is fairly accurate. Comparison to Other Sources (Mueller, 2009) recommended an overhaul of the existing hardware and software control platforms for power grids in the United States to reduce their vulnerability to threats. Assessment of Suitability for Academic Research This source is suitable for academic research because it is authored by academicians in renowned academic institutions. The authors’ academic credentials highlight their expertise in the research topic; thus, their arguments can be used to inform academic research. Cybersecurity in Power Grids: Challenges and Opportunities Author and publisher information The article was written by experts from various fields: Cyber Analysis and Defense, Digital Energy, and High Voltage Equipment. This increased the article’s credibility since it incorporated knowledge from different sectors to inform the research. The paper was published by MDPI, which published peer-reviewed scientific articles and journals. Thesis The authors argue that increased use of communication technology in power grids increases the chances of cyber-attacks by malicious actors. The researchers investigate communication infrastructure in power grids and propose solutions to this threat. Main Points and Evidence The researchers note that the energy sector is now classified as a critical infrastructure due to its importance in modern societies. The authors further point out the cyber threats posed by the application of digital technology in power grid operations and recommend strategies to secure this critical infrastructure. The authors consistently quote credible sources throughout the paper, which provide evidence for their arguments. Degree of Bias and accuracy According to the article, the research received no external funding and thus is not susceptible to sponsor bias. The paper is authored by professionals from different fields working together, which reduces the chances of inaccurate arguments. The authors bring a diverse wealth of experience, improving the paper’s accuracy. Comparison to other sources and suitability for academic research (Henze, 2017) investigates the security threats facing Cyber-Physical Systems (CPU) as they strive to incorporate information technology with the physical world. This paper acknowledges the threats discussed by (Henze, 2017) and proposes solutions. This source is suitable for academic research because it is written by accomplished scholars in their respective fields. In addition, the authors have consistently cited their sources in a well-organized bibliography. Cyber Security for Power Grids Author and publisher information The paper was authored by researchers from the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at North Carolina State University. The lead author, Frank Mueller, has written several research papers. The article was published during an International Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems Security, a renowned academic gathering organized by IEEE. Thesis The authors argue that power utility companies should prioritize their grids’ security and fault resilience. The article focuses on cyber security threats on power grids and proposes establishing an effective paradigm to secure cyber-physical systems. Main points and evidence According to the article, the power industry is rapidly evolving, as illustrated by adopting new technologies such as power electronics-based control and computing and communication technology. This exposes the industry to the risk of cyber-attacks, and the authors propose upgrading software to detect intrusions in the sector’s cyber-physical systems. The authors provide citations as evidence for their arguments Degree of Bias and accuracy The researchers propose the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) concept to improve power grids’ cyber security. The concept is managed by NC State University, an institution affiliated with the authors. Thus, the authors might be biased towards this concept. Comparison to other sources and suitability for academic research According to (Nazir, 2015), the integration of information technologies in electricity infrastructure has provided great benefits to all stakeholders; however, it exposes the power grid to cyber-attacks. While this paper recommends a software change to improve power grids’ cyber security, (Nazir, 2015) proposes a holistic approach to addressing cyber security in power systems that continuously evolves to meet emerging threats. This paper is suitable for academic research because it is authored by scholars associated with a renowned academic institution. References Henze, M., Hiller, J., Hummen, R., Matzutt, R., Wehrle, K., & Ziegeldorf, J. H. (2017). Network Security and Privacy for Cyber-Physical Systems. Security and Privacy in Cyber-Physical Systems: Foundations, Principles, and Applications. Krause, T., Ernst, R., Klaer, B., Hacker, I., & Henze, M. (2021). Cybersecurity in power grids: Challenges and opportunities. Sensors, 21(18), 6225. Mueller, F., Bhattacharya, S., & Zimmer, C. (2009, July). Cyber security for power grids. In Workshop on Cyber-physical Systems Security. Nazir, S., Hamdoun, H., & Alzubi, J. (2015). Cyber attack challenges and resilience for smart grids. European Journal of Scientific Research. Sun, C. C., Hahn, A., & Liu, C. C. (2018). Cyber security of a power grid: State-of-the- art. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 99, 45-56.
Begin with your First Half of the Annotated Bibliography from Step 6. Incorporate all feedback from your professor on Step 6 to strengthen the First Half of your Annotated Bibliography. Carry that fee
Name HIST 125 Professor Annotated Bibliography Date Cyber Security Sun, C. C., Hahn, A., & Liu, C. C. (2018). Cyber security of a power grid: State-of-the- art. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 99, 45-56. The authors argue that cyber-attacks pose significant threats to physical infrastructure such as power grids and propose solutions to improve power grids’ security. According to the paper, increased attacks on protected networks worldwide show that cybercriminals have enhanced their capabilities to access sensitive and secured data. The Authors give an example of a cyber-attack on the Ukrainian power grid to highlight the value of the research. This illustrates the reality of cyber threats to power systems. The authors provide credible evidence about the Ukrainian attack by reviewing reports about the event published by two power companies, the SANS institute and Electricity Information Sharing and Analysis Center (EISAC). The authors, Hahn Adam L., Liu Chenching, and Chih-Che Sun, are accomplished researchers at the school of electrical engineering and computer science at a reputable academic institution, Washington State University. The paper was published by Elsevier Ltd in the International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems (JEPE). This is a peer-reviewed journal focusing on research on electrical and electronic engineering technologies. Elsevier is a renowned publisher of academic journals and articles. The authors acknowledge the support of United States government in their research under the Department of Energy. Thus, the study’s findings might be biased to comply with the government policies on issues such as climate change and competition between the United States and China. According to the publishing journal, the authors are well-versed in electrical and computer science engineering. Thus, the paper is fairly accurate. The paper’s proposals are line with other researchers who have recommended enhancing the security and resilience of power grids against cyber threats. (Mueller, 2009) recommended an overhaul of the existing hardware and software control platforms for power grids in the United States to reduce their vulnerability to threats. This source is suitable for academic research because it is authored by academicians in renowned academic institutions. The authors’ academic credentials highlight their expertise in the research topic; thus, their arguments can be used to inform academic research. Krause, T., Ernst, R., Klaer, B., Hacker, I., & Henze, M. (2021). Cybersecurity in power grids: Challenges and opportunities. Sensors, 21(18), 6225. The authors argue that increased use of communication technology in power grids increases the chances of cyber-attacks by malicious actors. The researchers investigate communication infrastructure in power grids and propose solutions to this threat. The researchers note that the energy sector is now classified as a critical infrastructure due to its importance in modern societies. The authors further point out the cyber threats posed by the application of digital technology in power grid operations and recommend strategies to secure this critical infrastructure. The authors consistently quote credible sources throughout the paper, which provide evidence for their arguments. The article was written by experts from various fields: Cyber Analysis and Defense, Digital Energy, and High Voltage Equipment. This increased the article’s credibility since it incorporated knowledge from different sectors to inform the research. The paper was published by MDPI, which published peer-reviewed scientific articles and journals. According to the article, the research received no external funding and thus is not susceptible to sponsor bias. The paper is authored by professionals from different fields working together, which reduces the chances of inaccurate arguments. The authors bring a diverse wealth of experience, improving the paper’s accuracy. (Henze, 2017) investigates the security threats facing Cyber-Physical Systems (CPU) as they strive to incorporate information technology with the physical world. This paper acknowledges the threats discussed by (Henze, 2017) and proposes solutions. This source is suitable for academic research because it is written by accomplished scholars in their respective fields. In addition, the authors have consistently cited their sources in a well-organized bibliography. Mueller, F., Bhattacharya, S., & Zimmer, C. (2009, July). Cyber security for power grids. In Workshop on Cyber-physical Systems Security. The authors argue that power utility companies should prioritize their grids’ security and fault resilience. The article focuses on cyber security threats on power grids and proposes establishing an effective paradigm to secure cyber-physical systems. According to the article, the power industry is rapidly evolving, as illustrated by adopting new technologies such as power electronics-based control and computing and communication technology. This exposes the industry to the risk of cyber-attacks, and the authors propose upgrading software to detect intrusions in the sector’s cyber-physical systems. The authors provide citations as evidence for their arguments The paper was authored by researchers from the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at North Carolina State University. The lead author, Frank Mueller, has written several research papers. The article was published during an International Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems Security, a renowned academic gathering organized by IEEE. The researchers propose the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) concept to improve power grids’ cyber security. The concept is managed by NC State University, an institution affiliated with the authors. Thus, the authors might be biased towards this concept. According to (Nazir, 2015), the integration of information technologies in electricity infrastructure has provided great benefits to all stakeholders; however, it exposes the power grid to cyber-attacks. While this paper recommends a software change to improve power grids’ cyber security, (Nazir, 2015) proposes a holistic approach to addressing cyber security in power systems that continuously evolves to meet emerging threats. This paper is suitable for academic research because it is authored by scholars associated with a renowned academic institution. References Henze, M., Hiller, J., Hummen, R., Matzutt, R., Wehrle, K., & Ziegeldorf, J. H. (2017). Network Security and Privacy for Cyber-Physical Systems. Security and Privacy in Cyber-Physical Systems: Foundations, Principles, and Applications. Krause, T., Ernst, R., Klaer, B., Hacker, I., & Henze, M. (2021). Cybersecurity in power grids: Challenges and opportunities. Sensors, 21(18), 6225. Mueller, F., Bhattacharya, S., & Zimmer, C. (2009, July). Cyber security for power grids. In Workshop on Cyber-physical Systems Security. Nazir, S., Hamdoun, H., & Alzubi, J. (2015). Cyber attack challenges and resilience for smart grids. European Journal of Scientific Research. Sun, C. C., Hahn, A., & Liu, C. C. (2018). Cyber security of a power grid: State-of-the- art. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 99, 45-56.

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