Complete 31 pages APA formatted article: The Mechanism whereby Organic Polymers are Used in Solar Cells.

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Complete 31 pages APA formatted article: The Mechanism whereby Organic Polymers are Used in Solar Cells. This has been made possible by using new polymer materials, inorganic molecules, and fabrication methods that are more advanced and sophisticated and improved technology of the production of materials. Organic cells have several areas in which they can be applied, including power supplies for mobile devices, sensor networks, radio frequency tags, laptops, and iPods.

In this chapter, we will be reviewing the theoretical information, the behavioral characteristics, and concepts related to organic solar cells so that we can create a basis on which the results will be presented in subsequent chapters 4, 5, and 6 be discussed.

The theoretical work is organized as follows:

Section 2.2 gives an introduction to the major components of the organic cells and organic semiconductors.Section 2.3 discusses the organic cell devicesSection 2.4 gives an overview of the process of generating power from photovoltaic devices.Section 2.5 finally gives a comprehensive discussion of an organic solar cell’s equivalent circuit models and explains the current-voltage characteristics of solar cell devices under the two conditions of illumination and darkness.

2.2 Conjugated materials

This section will focus on and give a comprehensive review of the various properties and types of conjugated materials used in organic photovoltaics. Alternating different single and double bonds that exist within a molecule results in conjugation.&nbsp. Some semiconducting materials such as sp2 and spare used in photovoltaics contain carbon, leaving the available electrons to be delocalized into a cloud. In cases where the chain is uniform, this is likely to result in the elements’ metallic behaviour. Since single bonds are known to have a longer chain compared to double bonds and as a result, a perturbation is produced when the material is in its electronic state, hence forming an electronic spectrum.

A standard spectrum is picked for working out η to draw comparisons between different solar cells effectively.&nbsp. The AM1.5 G spectrum in Figure 1.3 is the most widely used traditional spectrum for calculating and comparing the performance of photovoltaics intended for outdoor use even though the sunlight’s scope at the earth’s surface varies with location, cloud coverage, plus other factors.

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