Consider your organization or another organization with which you are familiar. Briefly describe the organization,
The first classmates’s discussion is The Saudi Exhibition & Convention Bureau, the organization I work at, a government sector, dealing with licensing and supervising Saudi events, setting policies, conditions and standards for Saudi events organizers, venues and suppliers. Customer relationship management (CRM) system is considered to be the only database system used currently, since the organization is still new. The benefits of the SRM system is that it played a great role in developing the SECB business process by data collection and retention of customers information both existing and potential customers, building strong customer experience and increasing loyalty by using this data and analysing it. The downside of any technology including SRM is the Technology dependence. Any technical issue or cybersecurity threat could cause serious damage and disturb the whole business operation. As a business manager, I would use Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system. An article written by (Alomari, I. A., & Mohd, A. 2020) “confirm that forms of control act as dominant variables mediating the positive effect between ERP systems and firm competitive advantage.”(Alomari, I. A., & Mohd, A. 2020 p.1 ). ERP systems are the best choices to manage data and can be used by anyone, unlike other database management systems requiring a certain set of skills. “The integrated ERP IT systems play a significant role in supporting enterprises. Suppliers of ERP systems who want to stand out on the market are constantly developing their products taking into account different management methods and concepts.”(Turek, T., & Dziembek, D. 2018 p. 119). The second one discussion is ……In 2013, 200 million people were using Instagram every month and they storing 20 billion photos, at the began Instagram was using AWS servers then they moved to Facebook’s infrastructure, after that Instagram has grown to be a community of 400 million monthly active users, serving over a million requests per second and to keep supporting their growth, and to make sure their community has a reliable experience on Instagram, they decided to scale their infrastructure geographically, in this discussion, we will talk about how they expanded their infrastructure from one to three data centers.The key to expanding to multiple data centers is to distinguish global data and local data, global data needs to be replicated across data centers, while local data can be different for each region, and hardware resources, these can be roughly divided into three types: A. storage, B. computing, and C. caching, storage Instagram mainly uses two backend database systems: PostgreSQL and Cassandra, and both have mature replication frameworks that work well as a globally consistent data store, the goal is to have the eventual consistency of these data across data centers, but with potential delay. Because there is vastly more read than write operations, having read replica each region avoids cross data center reads from web servers.Computing, web servers, async servers are both easily distributed computing resources that are stateless, and only need to access data locally. Web servers can create async jobs that are queued by async message brokers and then consumed by async servers, all in the same region.The cache layer is the web servers’ most frequently accessed tier, and they need to be collocated within a data center to avoid user request latency, this means that updates to cache in one data center are not reflected in another data center, therefore creating a challenge for moving to multiple data centers.For example, a user commented on a newly posted photo, in the one data center case, the web server that served the request can just update the cache with the new comment and a follower will see the new comment from the same cache, in the multi-data center scenario, if the commenter and the follower are served in different regions, the follower’s regional cache will not be updated and the user will not see the comment.what Instagram did to solve this is using PgQ and enhance it to insert cache invalidation events to the databases that are being modified, So Web server inserts a comment to PostgreSQL DB, web server inserts a cache invalidation entry to the same DB, replicate primary DB, including both the newly inserted comment as well as the cache invalidation entry, cache invalidation process reads the cache invalidation entry and invalidates the regional coach and Djangos will read from DB with the newly inserted comment and refill the cache, This solves the cache consistency issue, but the downside is compared to the one-region case where django servers directly update cache without re-reading from DB, this would create increased read load on databases, to minimize the effect of his issue they took two approaches, 1st reduce computational resources needed for each read by denormalizing counters, 2nd reduce the number of reads by using cache leases.Instagram is now running in multiple data centers across the US, giving them more flexible capacity planning and acquisition, higher reliability.