# Hello, I am looking for someone to write an article on Energy Transfer and Thermodynamics. It needs to be at least 2500 words.

Hello, I am looking for someone to write an article on Energy Transfer and Thermodynamics. It needs to be at least 2500 words. On the other hand, a grey surface does not fully emit heat energy and has an emissivity value less than 1. The view factor affects the rate of heat transfer because the real-life intercepted by an area from a point on another site is dependent on the solid angle with which the end views the area. A black body is a material that is a perfect emitter of heat energy and has an emissivity value of 1.

Define heat of combustion, heat release rate, and combustion reaction giving appropriate equations. Explain the different explosions and definitions of specific heat capacity, latent heat, calorimetry, combustion temperature, and chemical equilibrium. (8 Marks)

Ans:

Definitions:

The heat of combustion is the amount of heat released per unit mass or unit volume when the substance is completely burned.

The heat release rate is the rate at which an object releases heat.

A combustion reaction is when all substances in a compound combine with oxygen and burns.

Specific heat capacity is the amount of heat energy required to raise a body’s temperature per unit of mass.

Latent heat is the quantity of heat absorbed or released by a substance changing state.

Calorimetry is the measurement of the amount of heat evolved or absorbed in a chemical reaction, change of state, or solution formation.

Combustion temperature is the lowest temperature at which a substance will burn.

Chemical equilibrium is when a chemical reaction occurs at equal rates in its forward and reverse directions. The concentrations of the reacting substances do not change with time.

Different types of combustion:

Spontaneous – happens at even room temperature when enough vapor of the material and enough oxygen have collected in a confined space to allow rapid oxidation (combustion) to start and continue.

Flash – happens when enough vapor has collected to burn at a specific elevated temperature but not enough to continue.

Fire – happens at a higher temperature when the combustion for the bacterial to continually give off vapor from the material.

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Determine the rate of heat transfer per unit area for a blackbody at 20°C. Is a good absorber of radiation a good emitter or a poor emitter? (2 Marks)

Ans:

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. First, express the temperature in absolute scale:

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. T = 20°C = 293 K

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. σ = 5.67 x 10-8 W/m2 K4

rate of heat transfer per unit area:

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. q = (σ*T4) = [5.67 x 10-8 * (293)4] = 417.88 W/m2

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