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Please comment on at least  2 to 3 of your classmates’ postings with questions or thoughtful, respectful, thorough responses.


An example of how a variable about news-gathering are beyond the control of reporters and editors but are still being affected by what people read, hear, and see, is the amount of time that is allowed for their interview. For example, if a journalist is trying to interview a certain celebrity, that celebrity may only give the journalist 10 minutes of their time. The journalist has to think of the most important or most captivating questions to ask within that time period or else it may result in a bad blog or article. While reading the article, the reader may not realize the journalist only had 10 minutes, but they are just judging the article off of the lack on information it had in there, which ends up resulting in a poorly rated article; which is not necessarily the journalists fault. 

Most of the time journalists write blogs and articles to tell their readers what is going on within that specific topic that they are discussing. In doing so, there is not much room for the journalist to add their own beliefs or opinions on the topic. Frankly, I believe this is the case because most of the time the reader dose not really care or have any feelings towards the writers personal feelings. For the most part, the reader is interested in the article to gain more knowledge on what is going on and about any juicy gossip about social media drama. Adding your own opinion to the blogs you are writing can deter people away from reading your work. After doing some research in regards to this topic, I found one article that actually goes against my statements. The article from New York Times called When Reporters Get Personal, talks about how some people believe hearing a journalists opinions and beliefs in their work is important. “
Jay Rosen
, a New York University journalism professor, believes that traditional notions about impartial reporting are fundamentally flawed. For starters, he thinks journalists should just come out and tell readers more about their beliefs”(Sullivan, 2013). 

An example of a blog that shows a negative or problematic perspective on things is one that I found written by Chelsea Carr. The blog is called The Negative Side of Blogging and it talks about how blogging (but you can add any word in place of the word “blogging” and apply it to any aspect of your own life) can take a negative toll on your mental health when you focus on the publicity. The writer of this blog talks about how some other writers hold themselves to higher standards and make others feel bad for not being as “talented” as them. That impacts people in many different ways. A lot of people use writing as a source of therapy, freedom, or art, and to have your hard work being judged and picked apart can be hurtful and discouraging. 

On the other hand, blogging can be a very positive thing. Reading blogs about a specific topic that relates to you can motivate you. For example, the article I found is about beating addiction. If you read uplifting articles about something that relates to you, sometimes you are more likely to be influenced by it and can see a change in a positive way. This specific article talks about how a healthy mindset can beat addiction and can allow you to get your life back on track. This article has so many positive meanings and statements that if someone who is reading it has been struggling with addiction needed some help, reading this could give them some helpful tips. 


Carr, C. (2016). The Negative Side of Blogging . Blogging Culture.

Khatun , K. (2022). How A Healthy Mindset can Help Beat Addiction. I Find Peace Like This .

Sullivan, M. (2013, January 5). When reporters get personal. The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2022, from



A) What variables about news-gathering are beyond the control of reporters and editors but nonetheless affect what people read, hear and see? 

The standard variables that were once a basis for gathering and reporting news have changed. Content, style, and sourcing are the leading causes for reporters and editors to struggle in gathering the news because they cannot connect to their readers like they once did. So many of the defined values of the news have been reshaped and no longer involved in a single print reader or a reliable partnership with broadcast viewers, news companies have been forced to reinvent their presentation of news in content, style, and sourcing (Weldon, n.d.). In addition, today’s culture has caused many newspapers to diminish and turn towards online pages to reinvent themselves to appeal to different people and cultures. The unknown has caused many news gathers to question their future. 

B) How are journalists captives of the personal values and biases they bring to their work? Provide an example of this through a video clip or story?

Journalists will use their judgment and critical thinking skills based on their values and beliefs. Our values and beliefs set the standard for our actions and choices. For example, I found an article about Lauren Wolfe, who was fired from the New York times for her biased views in reporting. She talks about how there is a reason to discuss why some journalists have a point of view because editing and reporting hard news means not having one (Wolfe, 2021). Wolfe (2021) goes on in her article to discuss how the news should not have a biased angle, but there are times in reporting where you need to have a side. I am not sure I agree with her 100 percent because your opinions and point of view give off a different feel to the story than initially necessary. 

(Link to story posted in references)

C) After reading “Encyclopedia of Emerging Industries – 
,” provide a “large scale” example of when blogging became problematic and one when blogging actually helped solve a problem. 

I honestly do not read or look into blogs much, so this area is complex for me. However, after reading this week’s readings on blogging, I discovered that during the mid-2000s, traditional media found itself competing with ordinary people who shared uncensored news as it happened from points throughout the world (Blogging, 2007). I never realized how much people were affecting the news culture because they were giving first-hand accounts of incidents in blogs. You see it now in a different form on social media of people posting their videos of their first-hand accounts. 

A positive blog I found was Zen Habits, where Leo Babauta discusses positive habits for individuals struggling with stress and wellness. Anyone can benefit from some self-healing and body positivity. This blog does not seek to shame anyone but seems to want to be helpful to people seeking those types of needs in their life. I like that it promotes health and wellness mentally and physically.

A negative blog I found would be Perez Hilton, and it might not be considered negative to other people, but I just do not like celebrity gossip or gossip in general. It causes so much drama, but Perez Hilton is sitting pretty with the amount of money he has made from this gossip and is now close to being in line with TMZ.


Blogging. (2007). Gale Books.

Weldon, M. (n.d.). Chapter 65: The Changing Nature of “News”. Sage Knowledge.

Wolfe, L. (2021, July 9). I’m a biased journalist and I’m okay with that. Washington Monthly.


Good blog examples too, and I remember Shea Allen’s boasting on her blog which got her in trouble with her workplace.

But, she was not protected by the First Amendment in the work place. Only government workers are.

“Employees who work in the private-sector do not, as a rule, have First Amendment protection for their speech in the workplace. On one level, a private sector employer could take the absence of a direct First Amendment right as providing free rein to discipline, terminate or retaliate against employees for their speech in the workplace. Before doing so, however, the private sector employer should take into account the effect of the anti-discrimination laws such as Title VII, RCW 49.60 (the Washington Laws Against Discrimination or “WLAD”), whistle blower laws, and various local laws.”

The Positivity blog just makes one feel good when looking at it:-)) I look at a Northern lights blog a few times a week just for the beautiful photos of the northern lights in Norway. Awesome. 

And, good work in A, but I am going to add this: plain old finances also interferes with news. Think budget constraints, lack of research editors (with the Great Recession in 2008, research department were cut to the bone by most news agencies and still have not made a proper comeback because news agencies realized they could get more work of this nature out of editorial assistants and the reporters themselves so research is secondary to some agencies) and trying to please owners/shareholders cause news agencies to agenda set more often that I think they would if not having to answer to the owners.

Catering to the news agency’s primary audience also creates an issue, for will the news be fair, be balanced, or will it cater to that audience? These days the latter is more often the case, especially with journalists, who as you noted, and great point by the way, who also have political agendas.


This has happened because there is no Fairness Doctrine in American news media any more. News stories had to give at least two sides of an issue, especially a controversial one, and this kept news agencies fairly honest. Hard to lie when giving more than one side to a story. Without this, news has become polarized and the result is frankly horrid in the news agencies of the United States.

Thus, news agencies have set audiences that expect information to be geared towards them and we see this all the time. And, this is why I don’t watch main stream news media such as CNN, MSNBC, Fox, CBS, etc.,. 

I read my news and mix national with international and get a more balanced perspective.

And, good point in B, but  keep in mind that in news media there is reporting and there are editorials. Editorials are given by senior news editors with years of experience in reporting and their news story is their view of an issue, so it will be biased, but it will also state, editorial. A news story should be given by a journalist in an unbiased manner as possible: give all the sides if necessary so the audience can figure things out for themselves.

Howver, catering to the news agency’s primary audience also creates an issue, for will the news be fair, be balanced, or will it cater to that audience? These days the latter is more often the case, especially with journalists who also have political agendas.

Discussion Rubric for COMM 202



Very Good

Meets Expectation

Needs Improvement

Idea Development

Innovative. Ideas are fully developed and clear, focused on the topic and related to the participant’s experiences or prior knowledge. Participant demonstrates a thorough understanding of the concepts discussed.

Ideas are developed and clear, and relevant to the topic. Participant demonstrates an understanding of and has the ability to apply the concepts discussed in the readings.

Ideas are somewhat clear, and relevant to the topic. Participant demonstrates an adequate understanding of the concepts discussed.

Ideas lack clarity, focus, or relevance to the topic, or demonstrate minimal understanding of the discussed concepts.

Timeliness and Participation

Posts initial discussion by Saturday of the week, and contribution and responses to classmates’ postings are early in the week and exceptional in content by furthering the discussion and relating responses to weekly readings. Posts further the discussion and/or ask relevant questions.

The initial discussion post, and the responses to classmates’ postings, are early in the week. Posts initial discussion by Saturday of the week, and the contribution and responses to classmates’ postings are solid in content by furthering the discussion and relating responses to weekly readings.

The initial response postings are early in the week. Meets minimal required postings completed.

Only an original posting with no interaction with other classmates; Postings are after discussion deadline dates; Very minimal participation with other classmates.

Grammar and Style

Exceptional grammar and expression; clearly college level writing. Writing makes a mark on the audience through freshness of style and expression. Thoughtful past common courtesies.

Grammar and expression adhere to the norms of standard English. Thoughtful past common courtesies. Makes a point to respect diversity.

Grammar and expression adhere to the norms of standard English. Occasional mistakes of grammar or expression. Writing appears in a style that is easily readable. Respectful.

Errors of style or expression and/or awkward sentences impede fluent reading of text. No or little sentence variety; style is often trite or redundant. Lacks full respect for diversity.

Demonstration of Knowledge from Assigned Readings 

Very clear that readings were understood and incorporated into responses. Responses to classmates helped to steer discussions toward content of the readings. Sources from readings or outside materials properly cited.

Readings were well understood and incorporated into responses when applicable. Sources from readings or outside materials properly cited.

Postings have questionable relationship to reading material or discussion prompts.

Not evident that readings were understood and/or not incorporated into the discussion 

Case Study 2- Ecological Footprint

 Case studies must be completed during the course and must be submitted by the due date and time listed on the course calendar. Note that you can submit them earlier in the semester.

The assignments must be sent to the instructor via Canvas as an attachment and the file name must include your

Last Name, class name and section number and Assignment title.

Any assignment not following this guideline will be 
not be graded. 

You must also include references for your answers.  Do not copy and paste from the internet, I do perform a SAFE ASSIGN check for plagerism!



Let’s begin with a review of the definition of each type of footprint you’ve calculated. [Remember: it is plagiarism to copy and paste from the web without putting the text in quotes and providing the URL source.]

Ecological Footprint (def): “A measure of how much biologically productive land and water an individual, population or activity requires to produce all the resources it consumes and to absorb the waste it generates using prevailing technology and resource management practices. The Ecological Footprint is usually measured in global hectares. Because trade is global, an individual or country’s Footprint includes land or sea from all over in the world. Ecological Footprint is often referred to in short form as Footprint (not footprint).”


Carbon Footprint (def.): “The Nature Conservancy’s carbon calculator determines carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions for personal and household behaviors. . . . Carbon dioxide emissions are calculated from the weight of carbon. Other emissions, such as methane and nitrous oxide, are reported in carbon dioxide equivalents so that the emissions can be compared. Short tons (equivalent to 2,000 lbs) are the units used to report emissions in this calculator. . . . For this calculator, emissions attributed directly from individual behaviors, such as miles flown, as well as indirect emissions, such as the CO2 emitted in building airports, are included in the overall emissions calculation.”


Water Footprint (def): “Water footprint – The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks at both direct and indirect water use of a consumer or producer. The water footprint of an individual, community or business is defined as the total volume of freshwater that is used to produce the goods and services consumed by the individual or community or produced by the business. Water use is measured in terms of water volumes consumed (evaporated) and/or polluted per unit of time. . . . The water footprint is a geographically explicit indicator, not only showing volumes of water use and pollution, but also the locations.”


Here are the units of measure in the 3 types of footprints you’ve calculated

(NOTE: /cap = “per capita” or “per person”)

Ecological Footprint = Global hectares (gha) per year/cap (or global acres for U.S. calculations)
Carbon Footprint = Tons of CO2 equivalent per year (CO2 eq/yr)
Water Fooprint = Cubic meters of water per capita per year (m3/cap/yr)

More information about the concept of a “global hectare” used in the Ecological Footprint:

global hectare (gha) : A productivity weighted area used to report both the biocapacity of the earth, and the demand on biocapacity (the Ecological Footprint). The global hectare is normalized to the area-weighted average productivity of biologically productive land and water in a given year. Because different land types have different productivity, a global hectare of, for example, cropland, would occupy a smaller physical area than the much less biologically productive pasture land, as more pasture would be needed to provide the same biocapacity as one hectare of cropland. Because world bioproductivity varies slightly from year to year, the value of a gha may change slightly from year to year.

hectare : 1/100th of a square kilometre, 10,000 square meters, or 2.471 acres. A hectare is approximately the size of a soccer field.

Planet Equivalent(s) : Every individual and country’s Ecological Footprint has a corresponding Planet Equivalent, or the number of Earths it would take to support humanity’s Footprint if everyone lived like that individual or average citizen of a given country. It is the ratio of an individual’s (or country’s per capita) Footprint to the per capita biological capacity available on Earth (2.1 gha in 2005). In 2005, the world average Ecological Footprint of 2.7 gha equals 1.3 Planet Equivalents.


In the bottom row of the COMPARISON TABLE below, enter the 4 footprints that YOU COMPUTED for yourself. (NOTE: use the websites on PAGE 1 to do your calculations)


based on 2009 data

Ecological Footprint

(global acres)


(global acres)

# Earth’s Needed

Carbon Footprint

(tons of CO2 eq/year)

Water Footprint
















FYI –here’s a copy of the results graphs for the 2008 USA Average Ecological Footprint.


For each type of footprint, write few sentences that (a) describes how YOUR footprint compares with the USA average and (b) suggests possible reasons for the differences between your own footprint and USA average.
You can do this by reviewing the “behavior breakdown” charts for each of the footprints to see which actions contribute most to each of your footprints – see the example above for the USA average Ecological Footprint. The behavior breakdown charts are displayed differently for the Carbon & Water Footprints, but the information is provided.

Ecological Footprint:



Carbon Footprint:



Water Footprint:




Now go back to the ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT QUIZ link:

Select one of the other countries available (but not Calgary – it’s a city in Canada, not a country) and compute your footprint again trying to answer similarly to what you entered for your USA footprint. (This may be a bit challenging because each country has different attributes, dwelling types, energy sources, etc. and some may be unfamiliar to you – but do the best you can – the conversion doesn’t have to be perfect, just a general idea. This will also give you some more practice with the metric system!

Speculate on why the country in which a person resides makes such a difference in the individual’s Footprint.

Evaluate your future Ecological Footprint. Recalculate your own Footprint using answers you predict will reflect your life in 5 to 10 years (bigger income, larger home, kids(?), more travel, etc. etc.) – Try to be realistic!!

What is your estimated future Footprint? ______ (in acres) ______ (in “Earth’s” needed)

Briefly describe your predicted changes in lifestyle. Do they increase or decrease your Footprint? In which categories? How and why?

USA AVERAGE Ecological Footprint (based on 2008 data)

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