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Please comment on at least 2 to 3 of your classmates’ postings with questions or thoughtful, respectful, thorough responses.


A) Is there any value left in the big-screen movie experience?

It depends are the person and what they prefer. Personally, I don’t particularly appreciate going to the movies on most occasions and like the new options of renting at home curled up with my blanket and our snacks. Many others, though, do value an excellent big-screen movie experience. In his Forbes article, Andrew Arnold (2017) writes that while millennials enjoy their streaming services, they also enjoy the big screen experience. He goes on to explain that movie theaters bring an immersive experience that streaming cannot (Arnold, 2017). Even though I mostly enjoy being at home, there are some movies that are just worth going out and enjoying the experience. 

B) Will online streaming video overtake the other media formats? Why or why not?

Online streaming has already started to take over many media platforms as our culture shifts, and we become more dependent on the internet. Netflix, for example, used to be an online website where you selected DVDs to get shipped to your house. It is one of the most popular online streaming media services that people binge-watch movies. Many people have also ditched cable and only rely on their choice of online streaming services. However, there is no sure time frame for when online streaming takes over because people still have trouble accessing the internet. Many countries still struggle to find internet sources, and in the U.S., only about 86 percent of households have access, according to Statista (2020). Time will tell as we are constantly evolving as a culture and society. We might even have some new media sources in the future. 

C) How can broadcast television change to remain competitive, and can you cite any examples of programming changes that they have made to do so already? How does “free content” in television play into this?

Each broadcasting network has come up with its own media app. I have an apple tv, and depending on the source of media I am seeking, I can download the app on my apple tv and stream from that network. Television broadcasting networks have figured out to remain relevant while appealing to both new and older generations. Networks have started merging with movie studios (ABC/Disney, CBS/Paramount, NBC/Universal, CW/Warner) for network executives to use the studios to produce programs, and executives at the studios take their ideas to the network (Gross, 2022). The free content channels are currently on basic tv are used in hotel rooms and a few local establishments. Many of the older generations use primary tv channels like PBS kids, and you can even stream these channels for free online. Another term for free content is that other streaming services with the correct equipment can skim off major broadcasting companies. 

D) After reading 21st Century Communication: A Reference Handbook, 
Chapter 96
: “Radio and Television Programming,” explain how cable TV was instrumental in leading to greater demassification (look it up if you don’t know what it means) of media content.

Scheduling strategies and counterprogramming makes it impossible to watch more than one point of view back in the time when it was not possible to record television. We can now search and seek answers that people back in the 1960s-1970s were solely based on the information the television could provide them given the time the people had to watch it. They were basically held captive by what the TV offered them, and cable tv became very good at targeting a specific type of audience. As a result, many channels are now known for their biased take on politics and other related issues (Gross, 2022). It is interesting how cable TV has caused these divides, and I am not sure how much they understand the effects on the future. 


Arnold, A. (2017, October 26). Convenience Vs. Experience: Millennials Love Streaming But Aren’t Ready To Dump Cinema Just Yet. Forbes.

Gross, L. (2022). Chapter 96: Radio and Television Programming. Sage References.

Statista. (2020, September 17). U.S. households with home internet 2019.


A.) To some people there is still value in the big screen movie experience. The release of new movies and going to the theater is what they enjoy. However, some movies get released directly to streaming services. Especially when the pandemic was going on. I believe as a whole the value of the big screen has gone down to a degree because of the access to watch movies at home. I have never been much of a movie goer. I watched more movies during the pandemic at home than I ever would of went to see in theater. I enjoy watching movies in my pajamas on the couch.

 B.) I think eventually online streaming will overtake other media formats, but I believe it will be a while. Several channels have their own streaming channel such as paramount plus, Disney plus, discovery plus, etc. However, internet access is still lacking in some parts. I do not have access to home internet as I have mentioned in a previous post, I use my hotspot on my cell phone to access internet for school and some streaming. Mainly everyone in my area has cable to watch TV or to save money like I do, a basic antenna to watch local stations. I believe at some point online streaming will take over because it is much cheaper than purchasing cable, it comes without all the bulky wires and equipment, and accessible from any device. Everyone needs access to good internet first.

C.) Broadcast television can change by including bundle options of streaming channels with their programs. Direct TV has cable television but now they have a Direct TV stream that a person would buy separate. They could include both together. My parents ditched their cable service from the price going up insanely and chose YouTube TV. It allows you to record as many shows as you want at a time, and you have access to streaming and live TV options also. By making this switch my parents are spending at least one-hundred and fifty dollars less than they were for cable. Also, cell phone companies are now offering free channels with service. I have free access to HBO max with my cell phone plan. No one will complain with free.

D.) Cable TV was instrumental in leading demassification of media content by creating channels for certain topics. They have sports, kids, music, news, crime, movie, and the list goes on of different types of channels offered. By doing this it helps people find the content they are interested in easily. These channels are meant to reach targeted audiences.


“SIC 4833 Television Broadcasting Stations.” Encyclopedia of American Industries, 5th ed., Gale, 2008. Gale eBooks, Accessed 30 Mar. 2022.

Gross, L. (2009). Radio and television programming. In W. F. Eadie 21st century communication: A reference handbook (Vol. 2, pp. 868-876). SAGE Publications, Inc.,


Submit: Assignment 3, Parasocial Relationships ~

Top of Form


This assignment will be submitted to Turnitin®.


After studying the assigned reading 
The Handbook of Communication Science, Second Edition, 

Chapter 20

: “Media Entertainment” and considering the topic of parasocial relationships, answer the following questions or prompts.

Do not include the questions in the essay.

A) Identify a character in a show with whom you have developed (in the past or present) a parasocial relationship. Remember, this person can be “real” or a character role. Explain why this character/person is compelling to you.

B) How do you “know” or view this character outside of their role on the show? Have they influenced you in any way besides the aspect of entertainment?

C) Explain any emotional attachment to the character or person. Have they disappointed you? Motivated you? How and why? 

Support your responses with research from the Learning Resources. Use 
APA in-text citations
 where necessary and cite any outside sources. Create an 
APA reference list
 at the end of the document.

Submit your responses in the file submission area for this assignment. If you choose to “add a file” by attaching an MS Word  document, please also copy and paste your response into the comments area.

450 to 550 words

©2020 University of Maryland Global Campus


Media and Culture Theory


The media directly influences individuals. It makes individuals aware of the things that happen on a global and national level. The media influences individuals directly because it presents new norms to them. It might persuade individuals to accept the new norms. The media can influence the beliefs and views of a person by presenting new information to them. People are likely to make their decisions based on the information they get from the media. They can have good norms and values of the media promote such norms. The media might affect people positively or negatively. TRUE The positive effects include being informed and learning new things (Eadie et al.,2009). The negative effects include getting fed with false information. The media might encourage individuals to engage in bad practices such as abusing drugs or being promiscuous YES, IT COULD BUT A SPECIFIC EXAMPLE WOULD HELP HERE. . It might encourage individuals to spend their money unwisely through the advertisements of various products and services. AGAIN, A SPECIFIC EXAMPLE, A SOURCE, WOULD HELP FOR CLARIFICATION.


The cultivation theory under the socialization theories accurately portrays my media experiences. SO, WHAT IS IT? CLARIFY.  I spend a lot of time on various social media platforms such as WhatsApp and Facebook. Spending more time on social media platforms has caused behavior and lifestyle changes. I have been able to obtain news through social media platforms such as Twitter. I have found news about the Russian-Ukraine war via Twitter. News channels such as CNN, NBC News, and New York Times have social media pages. One can receive news of what has been happening in various parts of the world if they follow the social media handles of such news channels (Berger et al., 2010). Even though the use of social media has been helpful in gaining new information, it has been more difficult to engage in physical exercises and study because a lot of time is spent on social media platforms.  HAVEN’T EXPLAINED THE THEORY. GERBNER, THE CREATOR OF THE THEORY, HIS FOCUS WAS ON HEAVY WATCHING AND SHOWS THAT WERE PRONE TO VIOLENCE OR EXTREME EMOTION.FOR THOSE WHO DO, THEY TEND TO SEE THE WORLD IN A MORE MEAN WAY, OR THE MEAN WORLD INDEX, AND BECOME FEARFUL OF SITUTATIONS THAT THEY HAVE SEEN ON TV, THINKING THE SAME THING IS HAPPENING IN THE WORLD.


The government should protect citizens by setting laws. There should be laws to the media companies to help protect members of the public from the media effects. The government should have laws that ban indecent videos and photos (Berger et al., 2010). It should also have laws that penalize media companies for posting false information and giving fake news. IF THE FAIRNESS DOCTRINE WERE BROUGHT BACK, UNTRUE AND OR BIASED NEWS STORIES COULD BE HANDLED WITH THAT.

Giving opinions on general issues should be termed free speech. Free speech is when individuals follow the government laws on posting information. Indecency is when individuals use abusive words ONLY? THAT SEEMS LIMITING. . It is when a specific group is targeted through the media. The media should not be used for targeting individuals that come from specific groups. Censorship is sometimes warranted. It is warranted because of the risk of fake news, racism, and violation of values. There has to be censorship to ensure that the media does not promote violence or hate against other groups. THE SUPREME COURT IS  VERY WARY OF  ANY THING THAT SMACKS OF CENSORSHIP VERSUS FREE SPEECH. THEY HAVE ALSO STATED, OVER AND OVER, UNFORTUNATELY, THAT HATE SPEECH IS PROTECTED UNDER THE FIRST AMENDMENT (SO IS LYING) UNLESS THE WORDS ARE “FIGHTING WORDS,” WHICH MEANS IT CAN’T LEAD TO “VIOLENT ALTERCATIONS.”








Berger, C. R., Roloff, M. E., & Ewoldsen, D. R. (Eds.). (2010). The handbook of communication science. Sage.

Eadie, W. F. (Ed.). (2009). 21st-century communication: a reference handbook. Sage Publications.



Some good points but there is no definition for Cultivation theory and that is needed. Please see my notes above in CAPS for more specifics.


Top of Form

Nature of News

An example of a current news story  NOT THAT CURRENT. THAT IS FROM 4 YEARS AGO LASHUNDA.  CURRENT MEANS THE LAST 90 DAYS OR SO. is the story of a family that was served a blood-stained Frappuccino from Starbucks. One of the family members noticed that there were red stains on her drink. She also noticed that there were red stains on her daughter’s drink. She explained that there was a strange metallic smell from the Frappuccino. At first, the woman thought that they were bleeding. She later realized that they had not been bleeding, and the Frappuccino had blood (Moye, 2018). She reported the matter to Starbucks. The woman explained that she had discovered an employee bleeding before being removed from the workstation. Starbucks offered the family $1000 as compensation.

The story was compelling because it covered a topic that affected many people. Most people are likely to order drinks from Starbucks. They might be surprised after hearing that someone was served drinks that had blood. The story connects with the audience because it covers something they might experience. One of the concepts that the story exemplifies is human interest (Eadie, 2018). People would be interested to read a story about their favorite drinks or coffee house. The story also talks about a kid who drank coffee with blood. It is likely to catch the interest of people who are concerned about the rights of children.

There is the concept of unusualness in the story. It is unusual for coffee to contain blood. One would have expected Starbucks employees to ensure that the drinks served to customers are not contaminated. The story is unusual for individuals from diverse backgrounds. There is conflict in the story (Eadie, 2018). The family explains that Starbucks did not care about their well-being. However, Starbucks explains that it cared for their wellbeing because there was compensation. The impact was a lack of trust among the Starbucks customers. The customers would have to double-check their drinks to ensure that they did not have unusual ingredients.

The concepts have been challenged by the advent of immediacy in a news release. BUT, THIS HAPPENED 4 YEARS AGO. The Internet has challenged concepts such as timeliness. Many people can share news through blogs, YouTube, and live feeds. They can use their smartphones to share the news. Reporters and journalists might not be the first ones to get news. Human interest is; however, the inclusive bridge (Eadie, 2018). Human interest actives the emotions of people and connects them through their similarities.

Social media platforms are used for sharing news stories today. Many people have become active social media users; therefore, they are likely to get news stories almost immediately. Social media users are likely to get the news of what has happened in other countries quickly. The advent of immediacy challenges concepts such as timeliness and proximity because people can share news quickly and across borders.




Eadie, W. F. (Ed.). (2018). 21st-century communication: a reference handbook. Sage Publications.

Moye, D. (2018). LA Family’s Lawsuit Says Starbucks Served Blood-Stained Frappuccino. HUFFPOST. Retrieved from


A good analysis but not a current news story but one from 4 years ago. Current means last 60 to 90 days, not over 4 years ago, so keep that in mind when another assignment asks for a current news item.


Rubric Name: COMM 202 Assignment Rubric

Print Rubric

This table lists criteria and criteria group names in the first column. The first row lists level names and includes scores if the rubric uses a numeric scoring method. You can give feedback on each criterion by tabbing to the add feedback buttons in the table.Development and Content

Exceeds Standards

40 points

Meets Standards

35.6 points

Needs Improvement

27.6 points

Does Not Meet Standards

23.6 points

Criterion Score

Category is worth 40% of overall grade

Develops answers with effective supportive examples; provides a balanced presentation of relevant information and shows a thoughtful, in-depth analysis; reader gains insights; specifically meets criteria of defining key points, events, or contributions

Develops answers with adequate supportive examples; information displays evidence of a basic analysis; reader gains some insights

Does not fully develop answers and may lack detailed supportive examples; analysis is basic or general; reader gains insights

Answers are undeveloped or has no supportive examples; analysis is vague or not evident; reader is confused or may be misinformed

Score of Category is worth 40% of overall grade,/ 40

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