I need some assistance with these assignment. what, if anything, can be done to reduce and/or prevent avocational crime how should it be punished explain your thoughts in detail relying on scholarly l

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I need some assistance with these assignment. what, if anything, can be done to reduce and/or prevent avocational crime how should it be punished explain your thoughts in detail relying on scholarly literature where applicable Thank you in advance for the help! AVOCATIONAL CRIMES Introduction According to the American Bar Association (1976), Avocational crime is crime perpetrated and can be prevented by the public prospecting such criminal acts hence they label them. Such individuals are also committed and they do not think themselves, as criminals because they have their sources of income, which are not crime by nature and their status, also do not allow them to engage in such acts. Avocational is a term that is majorly used to primarily refer to criminal acts committed against property, which may even be white-collar crime in nature (Geis, 2004). Their analysis takes the form of the self-image of the offender, the sources of his income and status and the ability of the prospective offenders to prevent or avoid such crimes (Bensen, 1985).

What can be done to avoid or reduce Avocational Crimes?

Such forms of crime are not the normal types and are therefore not easily recognizable, this is why whether to commit them or not depends on the individuals in position or status. The first and the surest way of preventing such forms of crime should therefore come internally from within the individuals prone to committing such crimes and their willingness not to engage in such forms of crimes (Lewis, 1989). This is also because detecting such crimes is not an easy task while at the same time they involve a huge loss of money. The definition of this forms of crime have also been quite difficult given they are sociological in nature hence they have in the past been categorized as both occupational and organizational deviant behavior. The victims of this form of crime range from individuals, businesses and government who greatly feel the impacts of the happening of such crimes. The victims should therefore be adequately informed about Avocational crimes in order that they are able to prevent deceptions from the perpetrators and laws with tighter or crueler repercussions.

These crimes have a grave impact on the victims and their prevention or reduction can mainly be met if their commitment is treated as felony of the second degree (Geis, 2004). For example, the embezzlement of public fund to a tune of $10,000 should be fined up to an amount not exceeding $7,500. Fine charged on offenders should also be adjusted to maximum so that they may be scared. As opposed to before, court rulings on the offenders should become more stringent (Clinard, 2003). Courts have in the past been biased in favor of the offenders and this must change if such crimes must be prevented or reduced.

How to punish Avocational crimes

Society’s reaction and dealing with this type of crime has lacked a lot of consistency allowing escape by offenders. This is created due to the perceived nature of the severity of the treatment of the offenders with the possibility of conviction and prosecution remaining small. Avocation crimes can be punished through stiff sanctions on the offenders who seem to be more or less powerful. Their power is mainly derived from their ability to influence the political setup through financing campaigns. What can be done to enhance the sanctions is to enact stiff and supportive laws and implementation of the same in courts (Reynolds, 1989).

References

American Bar Association (1976). Final report of the committee on economic offenses. Washington, DC: Author.

Bensen, M.L. (1985). White-collar offenders under community supervision. Justice Quarterly, 2(3), 429-438.

Clinard, M. (2003). Corporate ethics and crime. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.

Geis, G. (2004). Avocational crime. In D. Glasser (Ed.), Handbook of criminology. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Lewis, E. (1989). White-collar criminals should be imprisoned. In D. Bender & B. Leone (Eds.), Crime and criminals: Opposing viewpoints (pp. 177-181). San Diego: Greenhaven Press.

Reynolds, M. (1989). Crime by choice. In D. Bender & B. Leone (Eds.), Crime and criminals: Opposing viewpoints (pp. 164-168). San Diego: Greenhaven Press.

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