Legacy of the progressive era

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  Prepare a PowerPoint Presentation on the Legacy of the Progressive Era. Using resources from the Topic 6 Readings, including your textbook, materials provided by your instructor through class discussion, and materials from the GCU Library Guide for HIS-144 US History 

Themes, prepare your PowerPoint with the following areas of focus: Regulation of Business, Greater Democracy, Conservationism, the Rise of Professionalism, and Prohibition. The PowerPoint should be five to six slides (a minimum of one for each area) and include slide notes of 100-200 words for each. Additionally, include a title, introduction, and reference slide(s), which do not count toward the five to six slide totals. Each response should show good writing mechanics, grammar, formatting, and proper citations at the end of each question/response. 

Refer to the resource, “Creating Effective PowerPoint Presentations,” located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style. 

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion of the assignment.

1702159 – Cengage US ©

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AFAFTETER R FINISHINGFINISHING
THIS THIS CHCHAPTERAPTER
GO GO TTO O PPAGE AGE 112222
FOR FOR STUDY STUDY TOTOOLSOLS

LEARNING LEARNING OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES
Aft er Aft er reading reading t his t his chapt erchapt er, , you you should should be be able able t o t o do do t he t he following:following:

6-16-1 Describe Describe the the long-term long-term causes causes and and more more immediate immediate eevents vents that that led led the the colonistscolonists
into into a a true true war war for for independence independence against against Britain.Britain.

6-26-2 EnumeraEnumerate te the the various various phases phases of of the the American American ReRevolution, volution, and and analyze analyze thethe
circumstances circumstances that that eeventually ventually helped helped the the colonists colonists win win a a conflict conflict that that Britain,Britain, by by
rights,rights, should should nevnever er hahave ve lost.lost.

6-36-3 Assess Assess the the significance significance of of the the American American Revolution Revolution to to the the follofollowing wing groups:groups:
colonists,colonists, slav slaves, es, NatiNative ve Americans,Americans, and and women.women.

66 TheThe Re Revvolutionolution

CH APT ER CH APT ER 66: : TThe he RevolutionRevolution104104

Copyright Copyright 2018 2018 Cengage Cengage Learning. Learning. All All Rights Rights Reserved. Reserved. May May not not be be copied, copied, scanned, scanned, or or duplicated, duplicated, in in whole whole or or in in part. part. Due Due to to electronic electronic rights, rights, some some third third party party content content may may be be suppressed suppressed from from the the eBook eBook and/or and/or eChapter(s).eChapter(s).
Editorial Editorial review review has has deemed deemed that that any any suppressed suppressed content content does does not not materially materially affect affect the the overall overall learning learning experience. experience. Cengage Cengage Learning Learning reserves reserves the the right right to to remove remove additional additional content content at at any any time time if if subsequent subsequent rights rights restrictions restrictions require require it.it.

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After After the the “long “long train train of of abuses” abuses” that that led led to to the the DeclaDecla–
ration ration of of Independence, Independence, from from 1776 1776 to to 1783 1783 AmericanAmerican
patriots patriots fought fought a a long long and and difficult difficult war war with with Britain. Britain. OsOs–
tensiblytensibly, , the the battle battle was was between between freedom freedom and and tyranny tyranny (if(if
you you were were a a patriot), patriot), or or about about the the responsibilities responsibilities of of bebe–
ing ing British British (if (if you you were were a a Loyalist). Loyalist). In In realityreality, , choosingchoosing
sides sides was was much much more more personal, personal, depending, depending, for for instance,instance,
on on whether whether your your landlord landlord was was a a LLoyalist oyalist or or a a patriot,patriot,
whether whether you you thought thought political political freedom freedom would would improveimprove
your your economic economic situation, situation, or or whether whether you you felt felt the the earnearn–
ings ings you you made made from from a a slave-based slave-based economy economy were were threatthreat–
ened. ened. All All colonists colonists were were forced forced to to choose choose sides, sides, althoughalthough
many many remained remained ambivalent. ambivalent. Loyalists Loyalists were were scorned, scorned, butbut
revolutionaries revolutionaries would would be be punished punished brutally brutally if if their their sideside
lost. lost. Choosing Choosing sides sides was was no no small small mattermatter, , and and the the conseconse–
quences quences could could be be deadlydeadly..

But But the the war war and and the the political political independence independence thatthat
followed followed made made up up only only one one of of several several transitions transitions thatthat
took took place place during during these these years. years. The The Revolutionary Revolutionary WWarar
brought brought with with it it fundamental fundamental questions questions about about freedomfreedom
and and libertyliberty, , and and about about what what kind kind of of society society AmericansAmericans
wanted. wanted. How How far far would would the the American American Revolution Revolution go go inin
promoting promoting equality? equality? WWould ould economic economic and and educationaleducational
differences differences be be eradicated eradicated by by a a leveling leveling state? state? WWould ould slavslav–
ery ery be be abolished? abolished? How How different different would would the the new new societysociety
look look compared compared to to the the old? old? How How revolutionary revolutionary would would thethe
American American Revolution Revolution be?be?

6-1 6-1 FROM FROM REBELLIONREBELLION
TTOREVOLUTIONOREVOLUTION

As As in in most most revolutions, revolutions, the the American American Revolution Revolution hadhad
long-term, long-term, underlying underlying causes causes that that finally finally came came to to a a headhead
because because of of short-term, short-term, precipitating precipitating events.events.

66-1-1aa Underlying Underlying CausesCauses
In In the the 103 103 years years between between 1660 1660 and and 1763, 1763, the the coloniescolonies
had had formed formed a a unique unique society society distinct distinct from from that that of of Britain.Britain.
Perhaps Perhaps most most important, important, they they had had developed developed a a dynamicdynamic
economy economy in in manufacturing manufacturing and and processing processing goods, goods, as as wellwell
as as supplying supplying raw raw materials materials to to trading trading partners partners in in bothboth
the the Old Old and and New New WWorlds. orlds. In In other other words, words, the the coloniescolonies
were were not not just just a a primary primary economic economic supplier supplier (supplying(supplying
raw raw materials materials to to a a mother mother country), country), but but a a well-roundedwell-rounded

economic economic system system unto unto themselves. themselves. Of Of course, course, manymany
wealthy wealthy southerners southerners owed owed their their fortunes fortunes to to slave-basedslave-based
cash cash crops crops that that were were then then traded traded with with Britain, Britain, so so thesethese
colonists colonists shied shied away away from from confrontation confrontation with with the the Crown.Crown.
Nevertheless, Nevertheless, large large sectors sectors of of the the North North American American econecon–
omy omy were were becoming becoming increasingly increasingly independent independent of of Britain.Britain.

Along Along similar similar lines, lines, property property ownership ownership was was moremore
common common in in the the colonies colonies than than in in Britain. Britain. This This meant meant that,that,
with with the the notable notable exception exception of of slaves, slaves, the the peopeople ple workingworking
the the land land owned owned it, it, which which gave gave them them something something to to fightfight
for for should should their their position position be be threatened. threatened. The The colonies colonies alsoalso
had had developed developed without without the the titled titled aristocracy aristocracy or or widewide–
spread spread poverty poverty found found in in Britain, Britain, two two further further factors factors thatthat
made made them them an an entity entity unique unique from from Britain. Britain. And, And, in in fact,fact,
each each colony colony had had developed developed a a self-elected self-elected government,government,
something something it it was was not not willing willing to to give give up up easilyeasily..

66-1-1bb Precipitating Precipitating EventsEvents
But But these these long-term long-term causes causes could could not not have have detonateddetonated
into into a a war war without without several several immediate immediate sparks. sparks. Three Three werewere
vital: vital: (1) (1) increased increased local local conflicts; conflicts; (2) (2) the the uncompromisuncompromis–
ing ing attitude attitude of of Britain; Britain; and and (3) (3) a a shift shift in in opinion opinion amongamong
the the colonists—toward colonists—toward revolution.revolution.

THTH E E WIDWIDENEN ININ G G WARWAR

At At the the local local level, level, the the war’war’s s scope scope was was widening widening eveneven
before before any any official official declaration declaration of of warwar. . In In 1775, 1775, for for inin–
stance, stance, Ethan Ethan Allen Allen and and his his “Green “Green Mountain Mountain Boys”Boys”
attacked attacked and and captured captured Britain’Britain’s s Fort Fort TTiconderoga iconderoga andand
Crown Crown Point Point in in backwoods backwoods New New YYork. ork. At At about about the the samesame
time, time, the the patriots’ patriots’ Continental Continental Army Army invaded invaded CanadaCanada
and and captured captured Montreal Montreal but but failed failed to to capture capture Quebec. Quebec. InIn
Charleston, Charleston, meanwhile, meanwhile, patriots patriots beat beat back back an an attack attack byby
a a British British fleet. fleet. In In Boston, Boston, patriots patriots surrounded surrounded and and laidlaid
“siege” “siege” on on the the city city after after the the British British had had taken taken controlcontrol
in in the the aftermath aftermath of of the the Battle Battle of of Bunker Bunker Hill. Hill. PerhapsPerhaps
most most dramaticallydramatically, , Virginians Virginians forced forced the the royal royal governorgovernor,,
Lord Lord Dunmore, Dunmore, to to retreat retreat from from the the mainland mainland to to a a BritishBritish
warship warship in in the the harbor harbor at at Norfolk. Norfolk. These These local local conflicts,conflicts,
organized organized without without the the assistance assistance of of any any unified unified colonialcolonial
bodybody, , indicated indicated a a widening widening war war between between Britain Britain and and thethe
colonies, colonies, and and signaled signaled the the transformation transformation of of grassrootsgrassroots
opinion opinion toward toward warwar..

Lord Lord Dunmore’Dunmore’s s story story is is significant, significant, howeverhowever, , forfor
another another reason. reason. After After retreating retreating to to an an offshore offshore ship ship asas
he he awaited awaited British British military military support, support, Dunmore Dunmore issued issued aa

The The ffirsirst t shoshots ts oof f the the AAmermericaican n RevolRevolutioution n were were ffired ired iin n LexLexingtington, on, MaMassssachachuseusetttts s on on AAprpril il 1199, , 17751775, , picpicturtured ed herhere. e.
Little Little did did anyone anyone know know thenthen that that this this initialinitial skirmish skirmish would would lead lead the the colonies colonies to to declare declare their their independenceindependence and and
ststrike rike oout ut onon th their eir owown. n. EveEven n lesless s knknown own wwas as wwhahat t kinkind d of of natnation ion wowould uld fform orm iin n wake wake oof f a a hishistortoric ic revorevolutilution.on.

105105FrFrom om Rebellion Rebellion to to RevolutionRevolution

Copyright Copyright 2018 2018 Cengage Cengage Learning. Learning. All All Rights Rights Reserved. Reserved. May May not not be be copied, copied, scanned, scanned, or or duplicated, duplicated, in in whole whole or or in in part. part. Due Due to to electronic electronic rights, rights, some some third third party party content content may may be be suppressed suppressed from from the the eBook eBook and/or and/or eChapter(s).eChapter(s).
Editorial Editorial review review has has deemed deemed that that any any suppressed suppressed content content does does not not materially materially affect affect the the overall overall learning learning experience. experience. Cengage Cengage Learning Learning reserves reserves the the right right to to remove remove additional additional content content at at any any time time if if subsequent subsequent rights rights restrictions restrictions require require it.it.

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proclamation proclamation offering offering freedom freedom toto
any any slave slave who who agreed agreed to to fight fight forfor
the the British. British. His His program, program, “Liberty“Liberty
to to Slaves,” Slaves,” angered angered the the colonists,colonists,
who who would would later later cite cite Dunmore’Dunmore’s s acac–
tions tions in in the the Declaration Declaration of of IndepenIndepen–
dence. dence. TTo o many many colonists, colonists, libertyliberty
was was meant meant only only for for Europeans Europeans andand
Euro-Americans, Euro-Americans, and and it it stung stung thatthat
the the governor governor was was offering offering it it to to slaves.slaves.
Within Within weeks weeks of of Dunmore’Dunmore’s s call, call, bebe–
tween tween five five hundred hundred and and six six hundredhundred
slaves slaves responded, responded, and and before before thethe
Revolutionary Revolutionary WWar ar was was overover, , severalseveral
thousand thousand more more fought fought for for BritainBritain
and and for for their their freedom. freedom. In In contrast,contrast,
George George WWashington ashington refused refused to to useuse
black black soldiers soldiers during during the the first first yearsyears
of of the the warwar. . Indeed, Indeed, only only during during thethe
final final months months of of the the war war were were colocolo–
nists nists forced forced to to press press slaves slaves into into serser–
vice, vice, delaying delaying the the action action becausebecause
they they feared feared arming arming them.them.

UNCOMUNCOMPROMISPROMIS ING ING BRBR ITITAINAIN

As As the the war war widened, widened, King King GeorgeGeorge
III III grew grew increasingly increasingly angry angry atat
the the colonies colonies for for their their continued continued
insubordination. insubordination. He He rejected rejected the the “Olive “Olive Branch Branch PePe–
tition” tition” of of the the Second Second Continental Continental Congress Congress and and in in
August August 1775 1775 denounced denounced the the colonists colonists as as rebels. rebels. He He alsoalso
hired hired mercenaries mercenaries from from GermanyGermany, , called called ““HessiansHessians,,””
to to fight fight the the colonists. colonists. And And in in December December 1775 1775 he he closedclosed
all all American American ports.ports.

This This last last action action was was particularly particularly significant significant becausebecause
it it made made independence independence absolutely absolutely necessary necessary to to openopen
trade trade with with other other countries. countries. The The king’king’s s uncompromisinguncompromising
attitude attitude presented presented the the colonists colonists with with few few options options otherother
than than revolution. revolution. Each Each step step amplified amplified the the conflict.conflict.

THTH E E SHSH IFT IFT II N N AMAMERER ICICAN AN OOPINPIN IOIONN

FinallFinallyy, , popular popular opinion opinion in in the the colonies colonies had had graduallygradually
shifted shifted toward toward independence. independence. The The decline decline of of salutarysalutary
neglect neglect and and the the spread spread of of local local violence violence led led many many colocolo–
nists nists to to side side with with the the revolutionaries. revolutionaries. These These economiceconomic
and and social social events events pushed pushed the the war war of of ideas ideas about about freedomfreedom

and and sovereignty sovereignty into into the the lives lives ofof
everyday everyday Americans, Americans, and and the the moremore
the the Crown Crown proved proved uncompromisuncompromis–
ing, ing, the the more more American American opinionopinion
shifted shifted toward toward revolution.revolution.

66-1-1cc Choosing Choosing SidesSides
There There was, was, howeverhowever, , never never unanimunanim–
ityity, , and and thus, thus, in in addition addition to to this this bebe–
ing ing a a revolutionary revolutionary warwar, , it it was was alsoalso
very very much much a a civil civil warwar..

THE THE LOLOYYALISTSALISTS

Why Why remain remain loyal? loyal? In In the the end,end,
somewhere somewhere between between one-fifth one-fifth andand
one-third one-third of of the the colonists colonists remainedremained
loyal loyal to to Britain Britain throughout throughout the the warwar
(see (see “The “The Reasons Reasons Why Why . . . . .” .” box).box).
Most Most prominent prominent in in this this group group werewere
wealthy wealthy landholders landholders and and slave slave ownown–
ers, ers, who who had had the the most most to to lose lose in in aa
revolution. revolution. Furthermore, Furthermore, a a largelarge
percentage percentage of of colonists colonists remainedremained
indifferent indifferent to to both both the the British British andand
the the revolutionaries.revolutionaries.

Although Although all all the the colonies colonies hadhad
some some pro-Crown pro-Crown families, families, geogeo–

graphically graphically most most Loyalists Loyalists lived lived in in the the southern southern coloniescolonies
and and New New YYork.ork.

THE THE REVREVOLUTOLUTIONARIESIONARIES

Why Why revolt? revolt? Each Each rebelling rebelling colonist colonist had had a a different different momo–
tive tive for for supporting supporting a a break break with with Britain, Britain, and and these these reasonsreasons
were were just just as as complicated complicated as as those those for for remaining remaining loyal.loyal.

>> >> The The king’king’s s uncompromisinguncompromising
attitude attitude presented presented thethe
colonists colonists with with fefew w optionsoptions
other other than than rerevolution.volution. Here Here thethe
king king is is dressed dressed in in his his rrooyal yal best.best.

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Hessians Hessians German German soldiers soldiers hired hired by by Britain Britain to to f ight f ight against against thethe
rebelling rebelling American American coloniescolonies

>> >> FFort ort TTicoiconderonderoga ga stamp,stamp, celebrating celebrating
a a local local conflict conflict of of 1775.1775.

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106106 CH APT ER CH APT ER 66: : The The ReRevolutionvolution

Copyright Copyright 2018 2018 Cengage Cengage Learning. Learning. All All Rights Rights Reserved. Reserved. May May not not be be copied, copied, scanned, scanned, or or duplicated, duplicated, in in whole whole or or in in part. part. Due Due to to electronic electronic rights, rights, some some third third party party content content may may be be suppressed suppressed from from the the eBook eBook and/or and/or eChapter(s).eChapter(s).
Editorial Editorial review review has has deemed deemed that that any any suppressed suppressed content content does does not not materially materially afaffect fect the the overall overall learning learning experience. experience. Cengage Cengage Learning Learning reserves reserves the the right right to to remove remove additional additional content content at at any any time time if if subsequent subsequent rights rights restrictions restrictions require require it.it.

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Personal Personal and and commercial commercial considerations considerations were were vitallyvitally
important. important. But But perhaps perhaps most most influential influential was was the the ideologyideology
of of republicanismrepublicanism, , the the idea idea that that government government should should bebe
based based on on the the consent consent of of the the governed governed and and that that the the peopeo–
ple ple had had a a duty duty to to ensure ensure that that their their government government did did notnot
infringe infringe on on individual individual rights. rights. The The American American RevolutionRevolution
was was the the first first serious serious modern modern attempt attempt to to craft craft a a governgovern–
ment ment based based on on these these principles.principles.

Republicanism Republicanism set set down down deep deep roots roots in in Britain Britain bebe–
fore fore it it flowered flowered on on American American soil. soil. The The British British RadicalRadical
Whigs Whigs of of the the 1600s, 1600s, for for example, example, harked harked back back to to thethe
classical classical Roman Roman ideal ideal of of a a “republican “republican societysociety,” ,” in in whichwhich
governmental governmental power power was was curtailed curtailed by by the the actions actions of of thethe
people, people, who who were were presumed presumed to to be be virtuous virtuous and and willingwilling
to to sacrifice sacrifice for for the the public public good. good. Drawing Drawing on on these these RoRo–
man man ideals, ideals, the the Radical Radical Whigs Whigs outlined outlined a a theory theory accordaccord–
ing ing to to which which a a government government was was legitimate legitimate only only when when itit
was was based based on on an an agreement agreement between between the the members members of of aa
society society and and government. government. In In this this formulation, formulation, membersmembers
of of society society would would agree agree to to sacrifice sacrifice a a degree degree of of liberty liberty inin
exchange exchange for for the the government government maintaining maintaining security security andand
orderorder, , but but otherwise otherwise avoid avoid infringing infringing on on a a person’person’s s life,life,
libertyliberty, , or or propertyproperty. . Any Any ruler ruler who who transgressed transgressed naturalnatural
laws laws was was considered considered a a tyrant, tyrant, and and under under tyranny tyranny the the rere–
bellion bellion of of a a people people was was justifiable. justifiable. (Republicanism (Republicanism waswas
different different from from liberalism, liberalism, which which viewed viewed any any governmentgovernment
as as an an unwanted unwanted infringement infringement on on individual individual libertyliberty.).)

Republican Republican ideas ideas spread spread throughout throughout the the colonies colonies inin
the the 1700s, 1700s, mainly mainly by by the the work work of of two two British British authors—authors—
John John TTrenchard renchard and and Thomas Thomas Gordon—who Gordon—who wrote wrote aa

short short book book called called CatoCato’’s s LettersLetters. . In In America, America, Cato’Cato’s s LetLet–
ters ters and and other other Radical Radical Whig Whig writings writings were were quoted quoted everyevery
time time Britain Britain attempted attempted to to raise raise taxes taxes after after the the FrenchFrench
and and Indian Indian WWarar..

But But the the best-known best-known expression expression of of republicanrepublican
ideas ideas in in revolutionary revolutionary America America was was corset corset makermaker
Thomas Thomas Paine’Paine’s s political political pamphlet pamphlet Common Common SenseSense,,
published published in in January January 1776. 1776. Its Its simple simple wording wording of of rere–
publican publican ideals ideals nudgednudged the the colonists colonists further further towardtoward
independence. independence. Paine Paine asserted asserted that that the the king king never never hadhad
the the welfare welfare of of his his subjects subjects in in mind mind and and that that he he was was enen–
tirely tirely concerned concerned with with his his own own exercise exercise of of powerpower. . PainePaine
also also argued argued that that independence independence was was the the only only answer answer toto
this this problem, problem, using using language language so so powerful powerful that that it it mademade
any any other other course course of of action action seem seem absurd. absurd. He He set set forthforth
a a vision vision of of America America as as a a dynamic, dynamic, independent independent nation,nation,
growing growing in in population population and and prosperityprosperity, , with with a a kindlykindly
government government doing doing a a substantial substantial amount amount of of economic economic
and and political political leveling leveling to to ensure ensure equalityequality. . PointingPointing

Colonists Colonists wwere ere reluctant reluctant to to withdrawithdraw w from from the the BritishBritish
Empire Empire for for at at least least six six rreasons:easons:

Personal Personal cconnections onnections in in Britain.Britain. Many Many still still ffelt elt a a strongstrong
attachment attachment to to Britain Britain and and the the king, king, and and many many still still hadhad
family family and and friends friends in in Britain.Britain.

Economic Economic ties.ties. MManany y also also had had strong strong commercommercial cial tiesties
with with Britain Britain (the (the slave-based slave-based economy economy of of the the southsouth–
ern ern colonies colonies was was particularly particularly dependent dependent on on suchsuch
trade). trade). TTo o rebel rebel was was to to risk risk their their presenpresent t and and futurefuture
wealth.wealth.

Geopolitical Geopolitical concerns.concerns. Some Some feared feared that that FFrance rance oror
Spain Spain might might take take over over if if Britain Britain wwere ere driven driven out out of of thethe

colonies, colonies, and and they they prpreferred eferred British British rule rule to to thathat t of of somesome
other other European European nation.nation.

FFears ears of of what what American American independence independence mightmight
mean.mean. SSome ome of of the the smaller smaller rreligious eligious groups groups ffeltelt
that that Britain Britain had had protected protected them them from from mormore e powerfulpowerful
denominations denominations that that could could potentially potentially ourish ourish if if thethe
new new American American state state adopted adopted a a national national rreligion.eligion.

Personal Personal motivmotives.es. EconomicallyEconomically, , it it was was often often a a mattermatter
of of settling settling small small scoresscores. . If, If, ffor or instance, instance, your your landlordlandlord
was was a a revolutionaryrevolutionary, , you you were were likely likely to to be be a a LLoyalist;oyalist;
if if your your landlord landlord was was a a LLoyalist, oyalist, you you were were likely likely tto o be be aa
patriot.patriot.

Uncertainty Uncertainty about about American American success.success. SSome ome colonistscolonists
doubted doubted the the coloniescolonies’’ ability ability to to throw throw o o British British rule.rule.
After After all, all, Britain Britain was was the the most most powpowererful ful nation nation in in thethe
world, world, with with the the mightiest mightiest armarmyy..

republicanismrepublicanism The The theortheory y that that gogovernment vernment should should be be based based
on on the the consent consent of of the the governed governed and and thathat t the the governed governed had had a a duty duty toto
ensure ensure that that their their govgovernment ernment did did not not inf ringe inf ringe on on individual individual rightsrights

CatoCato’’s s LettersLetters Book Book that that spread spread republican republican ideas ideas thrthroughout oughout the the
colonies; colonies; written written by by British British authors authors John John TTrenchard renchard and and Thomas Thomas GordonGordon

Common Common SenseSense Inf luential Inf luential political political pamphlet pamphlet written written by by Thomas Thomas
PainePaine, , published published in in January January 1776, 1776, containing containing a a simple simple wording wording of of
republican republican idealsideals

107107FrFrom om Rebellion Rebellion to to RevolutionRevolution

Copyright Copyright 2018 2018 Cengage Cengage Learning. Learning. All All Rights Rights Reserved. Reserved. May May not not be be copied, copied, scanned, scanned, or or duplicated, duplicated, in in whole whole or or in in part. part. Due Due to to electronic electronic rights, rights, some some third third party party content content may may be be suppressed suppressed from from the the eBook eBook and/or and/or eChapter(s).eChapter(s).
Editorial Editorial review review has has deemed deemed that that any any suppressed suppressed content content does does not not materially materially affect affect the the overall overall learning learning experience. experience. Cengage Cengage Learning Learning reserves reserves the the right right to to remove remove additional additional content content at at any any time time if if subsequent subsequent rights rights restrictions restrictions require require it.it.

1702159 – Cengage US ©

to to the the tremendous tremendous growth growth ofof
the the American American colonies colonies in in thethe
eighteenth eighteenth centurycentury, , Paine Paine arguedargued
that that America America was was more more than than justjust
capable capable of of maintaining maintaining indepenindepen–
dence dence from from Britain; Britain; America America waswas
so so strong, strong, he he claimed, claimed, that that indeinde–
pendence pendence was was inevitable. inevitable. “Until“Until
an an independence independence is is declared,”declared,”
Paine Paine wrote, wrote, “the “the continent continent willwill
feel feel itself itself like like a a man man who who concon–
tinues tinues putting putting off off some some unpleasunpleas–
ant ant business business from from day day to to dayday, , yetyet
knows knows it it must must be be done, done, hates hates toto
set set about about it, it, wishes wishes it it overover, , andand
is is continually continually haunted haunted with with thethe
thoughts thoughts of of its its necessitynecessity.”.”

Paine’Paine’s s pamphlet pamphlet was was enormously enormously influentialinfluential
in in changing changing the the minds minds of of those those who who had had opposedopposed
inde inde pendence, pendence, especially especially in in extending extending republican republican ideide–

als als to to colonists colonists beyond beyond the the educated educated elite. elite. EmergEmerg–
ing ing just just as as local local conflicts conflicts spread spread throughthrough–

out out the the colonies, colonies, was wasCommon Common SenseSense
reprinted reprinted several several times; times; in in total,total,

Paine Paine estimated estimated that that 150,000150,000
copies copies were were distributeddistributed
throughout throughout the the colonies—acolonies—a

number number that that would would be be equivaequiva–
lent lent to to 15 15 million million copies copies beingbeing

distributed distributed in in the the United United StatesStates
todaytoday. . Historians Historians have have recentlyrecently

downgraded downgraded Paine’Paine’s s estimates estimates byby
half half if if not not more, more, with with its its influenceinfluence
most most widely widely felt felt in in the the north. north. Still,Still,

all all of of them them credit credit with with providing providing laylayCommon Common SenseSense —
man’man’s s terms terms for for the the case case of of independence.independence.

66-1-1dd The The Declaration Declaration of of IndependenceIndependence
The The increase increase in in local local conflicts, conflicts, Britain’Britain’s s inflexibilityinflexibility, , andand
the the spreading spreading of of republican republican ideals ideals made made a a breabreak k withwith
Britain Britain seem seem practically practically inevitable inevitable by by 1776. 1776. But But indepenindepen–
dence dence was was expedited expedited further further by by events events on on the the ground. ground. InIn
March March 1776, 1776, the the Continental Continental Army Army forced forced the the British British toto
evacuate evacuate Boston, Boston, ending ending the the eleven-month eleven-month siege siege of of thethe
city city that that had had begun begun after after Lexington Lexington and and Concord Concord and and thethe
Battle Battle of of Bunker Bunker Hill. Hill. Rather Rather than than sail sail for for home, home, howhow–
everever, , the the British British Army Army headed headed to to New New YYork, ork, where where moremore
Loyalists Loyalists resided resided than than in in any any other other colonycolony. . Choosing Choosing notnot
to to establish establish their their base base where where colonists colonists were were united united in in opop–
position position (Boston), (Boston), the the British British hoped hoped to to divide divide the the colocolo–
nies nies by by setting setting their their base base of of operations operations in in an an area area lessless
committed committed to to independence independence (New (New YYork).ork).

THE THE DRDR AFTINGAFTING

With With this this crisis crisis at at hand, hand, Richard Richard Henry Henry Lee, Lee, a a VVirginiairginia
delegate delegate to to the the Continental Continental Congress, Congress, proposed, proposed, on on JuneJune
7, 7, 1776, 1776, that that the the colonies colonies officially officially declare declare their their indepenindepen–
dence. dence. With With regional regional balance balance in in mind, mind, the the Congress Congress crecre–
ated ated a a committee committee of of five five to to draft draft a a declaration. declaration. The The comcom–
mittee mittee consisted consisted of of John John Adams Adams of of Massachusetts, Massachusetts, RogerRoger
Sherman Sherman of of Connecticut, Connecticut, Robert Robert R. R. Livingston Livingston of of NewNew
YYork, ork, Benjamin Benjamin Franklin Franklin of of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, and and ThomasThomas
Jefferson Jefferson of of Virginia, Virginia, who who was was selected selected as as the the principalprincipal
draftsman. draftsman. After After the the committee committee made made minor minor revisionsrevisions
to to Jefferson’Jefferson’s s first first draft, draft, it it presented presented the the Declaration Declaration ofof
IndependenceIndependence to to the the Congress Congress on on June June 28, 28, 1776.1776.

>> >> LoLoyalist yalist Flag.Flag.
PoPowerwer ed ed bb y y LigLig htht /Ala/Ala n n SpeSpencnc er/Alaer/Ala my my StSt ock ock PP hohototo

>> >> This This woodcut woodcut image image from from 1776 1776 shoshowsws
patriots patriots tearing tearing down down a a statue statue of of KingKing
George George III,III, symbolically symbolically declaring declaring theirtheir
independenceindependence..

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Declaration Declaration of of Independence Independence Statement Statement adopted adopted by by thethe
Second Second Continental Continental CCongress ongress declaring declaring that that the the thirteen thirteen AmericanAmerican
colonies, colonies, then then at at babattle ttle with with Britain, Britain, constituted constituted a a free free and and independentindependent
state; state; drafted drafted primarily primarily by by Thomas Thomas Jefferson Jefferson and and adopted adopted in in 17761776

108108 CH APT ER CH APT ER 66: : The The ReRevolutionvolution

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Editorial Editorial review review has has deemed deemed that that any any suppressed suppressed content content does does not not materially materially affect affect the the overall overall learning learning experience. experience. Cengage Cengage Learning Learning reserves reserves the the right right to to remove remove additional additional content content at at any any time time if if subsequent subsequent rights rights restrictions restrictions require require it.it.

1702159 – Cengage US ©

THE THE DECLDECL ARAR AATIOTIONN

The The document document consisted consisted of of two two parts: parts: (1) (1) a a preamblepreamble
justifying justifying the the revolution revolution on on the the basis basis of of natural natural rights,rights,
as as espoused espoused in in the the language language of of republicanism; republicanism; and and (2)(2)
a a list list of of grievances grievances accusing accusing George George III III of of tyranny tyranny andand
therefore therefore justifying justifying revolt. revolt. Heretofore, Heretofore, the the colonists’colonists’
complaints complaints had had all all been been directed directed toward toward Parliament. Parliament. ByBy
accusing accusing the the king king of of tyrannytyranny, , the the Declaration Declaration signified signified aa
tremendous, tremendous, even even treasonable, treasonable, break.break.

THE THE SIGNINGSIGNING

Once Once the the Congress Congress had had read read thethe
Declaration, Declaration, they they debated debated it it andand
made made several several major major changes changes (the(the
most most important important was was deleting deleting JefJef–
ferson’ferson’s s tortured tortured assertions assertions thatthat
Britain Britain had had been been responsibleresponsible
for for implanting implanting the the institution institution ofof
slavery slavery in in the the New New WWorld orld and and then, then, through through LordLord
Dunmore, Dunmore, provoking provoking slave slave rebellions). rebellions). On On July July 2,2,
the the Continental Continental Congress Congress voted voted to to dissolve dissolve ties ties withwith
Britain, Britain, essentially essentially declaring declaring independence, independence, whichwhich
is is why why John John Adams Adams later later wrote wrote that that July July 2 2 could could bebe
called called the the birthday birthday of of the the United United States. States. But But on on July July 4,4,
Congress Congress chose chose to to adopt adopt the the document document we we now now callcall
the the Declaration Declaration of of Independence. Independence. On On that that date, date, twotwo
people people signed signed it: it: John John Hancock Hancock as as president president of of thethe
Congress, Congress, and and Charles Charles Thomson, Thomson, the the CongressioCongressio–
nal nal secretarysecretary. . On On August August 2, 2, approximately approximately 50 50 othersothers
signed signed a a clean clean copy copy of of the the Declaration, Declaration, with with six six moremore
adding adding their their names names laterlater. . With With the the July July 2 2 declaration,declaration,
the the Revolution Revolution had had a a goal—political goal—political independenceindependence

would would have have to to fight fight for for it. it. But But how how could could they? they? TheyThey
had had long long been been protected protected by by the the British, British, and, and, other other thanthan
a a few few small small colonial colonial militias, militias, they they had had no no standing standing armyarmy..

THE THE CONTINCONTIN ENTENTAL AL ARMYARMY

Efforts Efforts to to build build a a bona bona fide fide army army began began even even beforebefore
the the Declaration Declaration of of Independence. Independence. It It was was an an uphilluphill
battle battle from from the the start. start. Throughout Throughout the the warwar, , the the army army ofof
the the patriots, patriots, called called the the Continental Continental ArmyArmy, , was was often often illill

equipped,equipped, ununder der manned, manned, andand
hungryhungry. . Recruitment Recruitment was was always always aa
problem. problem. Many Many colonists colonists wantedwanted
freedom, freedom, but but few few wanted wanted to to givegive
their their lives lives for for it. it. The The ContinentalContinental
Congress Congress had had to to offer offer large large bounboun–
ties ties of of land land to to induce induce men men to to enlist,enlist,
and and eventually eventually it it reduced reduced the the termterm
of of service service to to just just three three months.months.

Although Although the the Congress Congress set set enlistment enlistment quotas quotas for for all all thethe
new new states, states, the the states states rarely rarely met met them. them. At At any any given given time,time,
there there were were usually usually 10,000 10,000 poorly poorly trained trained troops troops in in thethe
Continental Continental ArmyArmy. . They They were were often often hungry hungry and and unpaid,unpaid,
but but the the Continental Continental Congress Congress could could not not help help because because itit
did did not not have have much much money money itself. itself. As As fighting fighting progressed,progressed,
the the army army had had to to live live off off the the kindness kindness of of surrounding surrounding farmfarm–
ers ers (hoping (hoping they they were were patriots patriots and and not not Loyalists).Loyalists).

The The Continental Continental Army Army acted acted under under tthehe ororddererss o off
George George WWashington, ashington, a a patrician patrician Virginia Virginia tobacco tobacco farmerfarmer
whose whose wealth wealth came came from from his his wife’wife’s s familyfamily. . He He believed believed inin
the the republican republican ideology ideology to to the the very very marrow marrow of of his his bones.bones.
He He also also had had a a brilliant brilliant grasp grasp of of the the war’war’s s military military strategystrategy..
He He recognized recognized that, that, because because of of the the ideological ideological nature nature ofof

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>> >> As As commemorated commemorated on on today’today’s s two-dollar two-dollar bill,bill, John John
TTrumbull’rumbull’s s 1819 1819 painting painting shows shows the the fivfive-man e-man drdraftingafting
committee committee presenting presenting the the DeclarDeclaration ation of of Independence Independence toto
the the Continental Continental Congress.Congress.

from from Britain. Britain. With With the the July July 44
Declaration Declaration of of Independence,Independence,
howeverhowever, , American American colonists colonists hadhad
declared declared their their intention intention not not justjust
to to seek seek nationhood, nationhood, but but to to do do soso
in in the the belief belief that that all all men men werewere
created created equal equal and and that that all all peoplepeople
possessed possessed certain certain rights rights that that nono–
body body could could denydeny..

6-2 6-2 THE THE WAR WAR FORFOR
INDEPENDENCEINDEPENDENCE

66-2-2aa The The Opposing Opposing SidesSides
The The colonists colonists had had declared declared theirtheir
independence, independence, but but now now theythey

The The main main way way theythey
raised raised money money waswas

simply simply to to print print itit
and and hope hope people people wouldwould
accept accept the the bills.bills.

109109The The WWar ar f or f or IndependenceIndependence

Copyright Copyright 2018 2018 Cengage Cengage Learning. Learning. All All Rights Rights Reserved. Reserved. May May not not be be copied, copied, scanned, scanned, or or duplicated, duplicated, in in whole whole or or in in part. part. Due Due to to electronic electronic rights, rights, some some third third party party content content may may be be suppressed suppressed from from the the eBook eBook and/or and/or eChapter(s).eChapter(s).
Editorial Editorial review review has has deemed deemed that that any any suppressed suppressed content content does does not not materially materially affect affect the the overall overall learning learning experience. experience. Cengage Cengage Learning Learning reserves reserves the the rigright ht to to remove remove additional additional content content at at any any time time if if subsequent subsequent rights rights restrictions restrictions require require it.it.

1702159 – Cengage US ©

the the Revolution Revolution and and the the condition condition of of his his ragtag ragtag armyarmy, , hishis
chances chances would would be be better better if if he he did did not not try try to to win win every every batbat–
tle. tle. Indeed, Indeed, if if he he refused refused to to engage engage the the British British at at all all andand
made made them them wear wear themselves themselves out out pursuing pursuing him, him, he he couldcould
win win simply simply by by surviving. surviving. This This strategystrategy, , of of course, course, dependeddepended

on on nonmilitary nonmilitary colonists colonists continuing continuing to to resist resist and and harass harass thethe
British British governors governors and and troops. troops. Without Without grassroots grassroots supportsupport
in in colonial colonial cities cities and and towns, towns, the the British British might might have have starvedstarved
the the colonists colonists into into submission. submission. But But WWashington ashington knewknew, , or or atat
least least hoped, hoped, that that he he could could find find support support from from a a large large numnum–
ber ber of of colonists. colonists. He He also also knew knew that that to to not not lose lose was was his his bestbest
chance chance to to win.win.

THTH E E RERE VVOLUOLUTIOTIONARY NARY GOVEGOVE RR NMNMENTENT
AND AND FINFIN ANCESANCES

Despite Despite his his tactical tactical savvysavvy, , WWashington ashington received received his his ordersorders
from from the the Continental Continental Congress, Congress, the the only only centralized centralized auau–
thority thority in in the the colonies, colonies, although although it it had had no no legal legal standing standing oror
charter charter document. document. The The Continental Continental Congress Congress could could onlyonly
request request assistance assistance from from the the various various states, states, which which had had nono
obligation obligation to to grant grant those those requests. requests. Although Although the the revolutionrevolution–
aries aries planned planned a a national national government government in in 1777, 1777, its its foundingfounding
charter charter (the (the Articles Articles of of Confederation) Confederation) was was not not completedcompleted
until until 1781. 1781. Throughout Throughout the the Revolutionary Revolutionary WWarar, , then, then, thethe
revolutionaries revolutionaries had had no no official official central central authorityauthority..

This This hindered hindered them them organizationallyorganizationally, , and and worse, worse, itit
meant meant that that the the revolutionaries revolutionaries could could not not easily easily raise raise moneymoney..
They They had had neither neither the the power power to to levy levy taxes taxes nor nor the the infrainfra–
structure structure of of a a treasurytreasury. . The The main main way way they they raised raised moneymoney
was was simply simply to to print print it it and and hope hope people people would would accept accept thethe
bills. bills. The The Continental Continental Congress Congress issued issued these these bills bills of of creditcredit
throughout throughout the the warwar. . The The states states issued issued their their own own money money asas
well, well, almost almost all all of of which which was was generally generally more more stable stable thanthan
the the Conti Conti nental nental dollars. dollars. TToward oward the the end end of of the the warwar, , thethe
phrase phrase “not “not worth worth a a Continental” Continental” became became common, common, sugsug–
gesting gesting the the centralized centralized currency’currency’s s lack lack of of buying buying power power andand
the the widespread widespread lack lack of of faith faith in in it. it. Only Only after after 1781, 1781, whenwhen
Robert Robert Morris Morris became became superintendent superintendent of of finance finance for for thethe
fledgling fledgling nation, nation, did did monetary monetary conditions conditions improve, improve, mainlymainly
because because he he could could borrow borrow from from friendly friendly European European nations.nations.
But But throughout throughout the the warwar, , the the United United States States endured endured thethe
highest highest inflation inflation in in its its historyhistory. . This This took took a a tremendous tremendous tolltoll
on on consumers, consumers, which which is is to to saysay, , all all colonists.colonists.

THTH E E BRBR ITISITISH H ARMARMYY

The The British, British, on on the the other other hand, hand, had had the the most most powerfulpowerful
army army in in the the world, world, supremacy supremacy of of the the seas, seas, and and an an organizedorganized
hierarchy hierarchy of of authority authority that that extended extended all all the the way way to to the the king.king.
But But they they also also had had the the more more difficult difficult military military task task of of trytry–
ing ing to to destroy destroy WWashington’ashington’s s armyarmy, , which which was was adept adept at at runrun–
ning ning up up hills hills and and into into forests forests to to avoid avoid being being captured. captured. TheThe
Crown Crown sent sent seasoned seasoned British British troops troops who who were were well well armedarmed
and and accustomed accustomed to to large large battles battles on on vast vast battlefields. battlefields. ItIt
also also hired hired German German mercenaries, mercenaries, the the Hessians, Hessians, to to fight fight thethe
revolutionaries. revolutionaries. Many Many times, times, the the British British outnumbered outnumbered thethe
revolutionaries revolutionaries and and were were better better trained trained and and better better armed,armed,

>>>> Sho Shown wn here here is is the the original original cover cover of of thethe
pamphlet,pamphlet, Common Common Sense.Sense. The The pampletpamplet
was was rereprinted printed severseveral al times; times; in in total,total,
Paine Paine estimated estimated that that 150,000 150,000 copies copies wwereere
distributed distributed throughout throughout the the colonies,colonies,
although although historians historians hahave ve cut cut that that nnumberumber
in in half.half. Nevertheless, Nevertheless, it it put put the the conflict conflict inin
lalayman’yman’s s terms,terms, helping helping increase increase supportsupport
for for declaring declaring independenceindependence..

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bills bills of of credit credit Currency Currency printed printed by by the the Continental Continental CCongressongress
during during the the Revolutionary Revolutionary WWar; ar; printing printing these these bills bills in in huge huge numbers numbers andand
without without any any backing backing led led to to high high inf lationinf lation

110110 CH APT ER CH APT ER 66: : The The ReRevolutionvolution

Copyright Copyright 2018 2018 Cengage Cengage Learning. Learning. All All Rights Rights Reserved. Reserved. May May not not be be copied, copied, scanned, scanned, or or duplicated, duplicated, in in whole whole or or in in part. part. Due Due to to electronic electronic rights, rights, some some third third party party content content may may be be suppressed suppressed from from the the eBook eBook and/or and/or eChapter(s).eChapter(s).
Editorial Editorial review review has has deemed deemed that that any any suppressed suppressed content content does does not not materially materially affect affect the the overall overall learning learning experience. experience. Cengage Cengage Learning Learning reserves reserves the the right right to to remove remove additional additional content content at at any any time time if if subsequent subsequent rights rights restrictions restrictions require require it.it.

1702159 – Cengage US ©

>>>> Continental Continental Congress Congress bills bills of of credit credit wwereere
unpredictaunpredictabble le and and sometimes sometimes worthless.worthless.
Pictured Pictured here here arare e severseveral al varieties varieties of of thethe
bills bills of of credit.credit.

but but they they nonetheless nonetheless confronted confronted three three insurmountableinsurmountable
problems: problems: (1) (1) Britain Britain could could never never supply supply its its troops troops adad–
equatelyequately, , especially especially as as WWashington ashington prolonged prolonged the the warwar
by by constantly constantly retreating retreating inland, inland, away away from from placesplaces
where where British British ships ships could could easily easily resupply resupply BritishBritish
troops; troops; (2) (2) WWashington ashington avoided avoided directly directly engagingengaging
the the British British troops, troops, so so the the regimented regimented British British ArmyArmy
was was subjected subjected to to unaccustomed unaccustomed guerrilla guerrilla warfarewarfare
as as it it chased chased him him around around the the countryside;countryside;
and and (3) (3) other other European European nations nations (notably(notably
France) France) eventually eventually supported supported the the revorevo–
lutionaries. lutionaries. These These other other nations nations werewere
only only too too glad glad to to see see mighty mighty BritainBritain
humbled humbled by by upstart upstart New New WWorldorld
backwoodsmenbackwoodsmen..

66-2-2bb The The Second Second Phase Phase ofof
the the WarWar, , 1776–17791776–1779

Historians Historians have have identified identified three three phases phases of of the the warwar..
The The first first took took place place mostly mostly in in New New England England fromfrom
1774 1774 to to 1777 1777 and and was was viewed viewed by by Britain Britain mostly mostly as as aa
police police action. action. The The purpur–
suits suits in in Lexington Lexington andand

Concord, Concord, as as well well as as the the Battle Battle of of BunkerBunker
Hill, Hill, represented represented Britain’Britain’ss attempts attempts toto

bring bring their their colonial colonial upstart upstart back back intointo
line. line. The The second second phase, phase, which which began began inin
1776, 1776, was was generally generally fought fought in in the the MidMid–
dle dle Colonies Colonies and and was was a a more more traditionaltraditional

battle, battle, with with the the British British trying trying to to fightfight
large large military military battles battles and and take take what what waswas

then then the the capital capital citycity, , PhilaPhila–
delphia delphia (see (see MapMap 6.1). 6.1). TheThe
third third and and final final phase phase waswas
fought fought in in the the South South and and ledled
to to widespread widespread guerrilla guerrilla warwar–
fare. fare. Generally Generally speaking,speaking,
the the Americans’ Americans’ strategy strategy waswas
to to run run and and survive. survive. TheyatTheyat–
tacked tacked only only when when they they werewere
convinced convinced ofvictoryofvictory..

EARLEARLY Y BRITISHBRITISH SUCCES SUCCESSESSES

After After evacuating evacuating Massachusetts Massachusetts in in March March 1776, 1776, the the BritBrit–
ish ish Army Army repositioned repositioned on on Long Long Island Island and and pressed pressed toto
drive drive patriot patriot forces forces from from New New YYork ork CityCity, , thus thus initiatinginitiating
the the second second phase phase of of the the warwar. . Their Their goal goal was was to to isolateisolate
New New England England (which (which it it saw saw as as the the center center of of resistance)resistance)
by by taking taking control control of of New New YYork ork City City and and the the Great Great Lakes,Lakes,
then then subduing subduing the the South, South, leaving leaving Massachusetts Massachusetts strandstrand–
ed ed in in its its revolutionary revolutionary fervorfervor..

In In July July 1776, 1776, 34,000 34,000 British British troops troops delivered delivered a a crushcrush–
ing ing defeat defeat to to the the patriots patriots on on LLong ong Island Island and and forced forced thethe
revolutionary revolutionary army army of of 18,000 18,000 to to give give up up New New YYork ork CityCity..
The The patriots patriots withdrew withdrew all all the the way way to to New New JerseyJersey, , thenthen
to to Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania. Fleeing Fleeing was was militarily militarily embarrassing embarrassing andand
bad bad for for morale, morale, but but it it was was tactically tactically sound: sound: so so long long asas
the the Continental Continental Army Army remained remained intact, intact, the the colonies colonies werewere
still still fighting fighting for for independence.independence.

CRCR OSSIOSSI NG NG THTH E E DEDE LAWARELAWARE

As As recruitment recruitment suffered suffered because because of of the the demoralizdemoraliz–
ing ing loss loss at at New New YYork, ork, WWashington ashington realized realized he he needneed–

ed ed a a victoryvictory. . Furthermore, Furthermore, most most of of his his soldiers soldiers werewere
enlisted enlisted only only through through the the end end of of 1776, 1776, and and he he fearedfeared

that that without without a a victory victory before before the the end end of of the the yearyear, , thethe
majority majority of of his his soldiers soldiers would would not not reenlist. reenlist. WWashingtonashington

decided decided on on a a bold, bold, brilliant brilliant action. action. On On Christmas Christmas nightnight
1776, 1776, the the army army crossed crossed the the ice-filled ice-filled Delaware Delaware RiverRiver
and and captured captured TTrenton, renton, New New JerseyJersey, , which which at at the the timetime
was was held held by by 1,500 1,500 Hessian Hessian mercenaries mercenaries working working for for thethe
British British ArmyArmy. . The The American American victory victory at at TTrenton renton had had littlelittle
strategic strategic significance, significance, but but it it boosted boosted morale morale and and enerener–
gized gized the the Revolution.Revolution.

>> >> George George WWashington.ashington.

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111111The The WWar ar f or f or IndependenceIndependence

Copyright Copyright 2018 2018 Cengage Cengage Learning. Learning. All All Rights Rights Reserved. Reserved. May May not not be be copied, copied, scanned, scanned, or or duplicated, duplicated, in in whole whole or or in in part. part. Due Due to to electronic electronic rights, rights, some some third third party party content content may may be be suppressed suppressed from from the the eBook eBook and/or and/or eChapter(s).eChapter(s).
Editorial Editorial review review has has deemed deemed that that any any suppressed suppressed content content does does not not materially materially affect affect the the overall overall learning learning experience. experience. Cengage Cengage Learning Learning reserves reserves the the right right to to remove remove additional additional content content at at any any time time if if subsequent subsequent rights rights restrictions restrictions require require it.it.

1702159 – Cengage US ©

FoFortrt Oswego Oswego

FoFortrt Ticonderoga Ticonderoga

Crown Crown PointPoint

OriskanyOriskany
Aug. Aug. 6, 6, 17771777

Fort Fort StanwixStanwix
Aug. Aug. 23, 23, 17771777

Long Long IslandIsland
Aug. Aug. 27, 27, 17761776

Arnold’sArnold’s
naval naval battlebattle
Oct. Oct. 11, 11, 17761776

Monmouth Monmouth Court Court HouseHouse
June June 28, 28, 17781778

Trenton Trenton Dec. Dec. 26, 26, 17761776
Princeton Princeton Jan. Jan. 3, 3, 17771777

Fort Fort Washington Washington Nov. Nov. 16, 16, 17761776

Germantown Germantown Oct. Oct. 4, 4, 17771777

Brandywine Brandywine Sept. Sept. 11, 11, 17771777

Québec Québec Dec. Dec. 17761776

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Cornwallis Cornwallis Dec. Dec. 17761776

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BostonBoston
siege siege 1775–17761775–1776

PhiladelphiaPhiladelphia

Valley Valley ForgeForge

MontréalMontréal

ManchesterManchester

AlbanyAlbany

NewburyportNewburyport

FalmouthFalmouth

WilmingtonWilmington

VIRGINIAVIRGINIA

MD.MD.

DEL.DEL.

N.J.N.J.

PENNSYLVANIAPENNSYLVANIA

NEW NEW YORKYORK

CONN.CONN.

MASS.MASS.

R.I.R.I.

N.H.N.H.

MAINEMAINE
(MASS.)(MASS.)

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SaratogaSaratoga
Burgoyne Burgoyne surrenderssurrenders
Oct. Oct. 17, 17, 1777.1777.

Arnold Arnold andand
MontgomeryMontgomery
begin begin retreatretreat
May May 7, 7, 1776.1776.

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Map Map 6.16.1 Re Revolutionary volutionary War War in in the the NorthNorth
>> >> This This map map details details the the major major battles battles of of the the RevRevolutionary olutionary WWar ar in in the the northern northern colonies colonies andand
shows shows both both land land and and wwater ater battles battles stretching stretching from from NeNew w JerseJersey y to to NeNew w YYork, ork, and and demonstrdemonstratesates
the the rerevolutionaries’ volutionaries’ attempts attempts to to win win the the war war bby y fleeing fleeing inland inland to to prevprevent ent being being captured.captured.

112112 CH APT ER CH APT ER 66: : The The ReRevolutionvolution

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Editorial Editorial review review has has deemed deemed that that any any suppressed suppressed content content does does not not materially materially affect affect the the overall overall learning learning experience. experience. Cengage Cengage Learning Learning reserves reserves the the right right to to remove remove additional additional content content at at any any time time if if subsequent subsequent rights rights restrictions restrictions require require it.it.

1702159 – Cengage US ©

THTH E E BABATT TLE TLE OOF F SARSAR AATOGTOG AA

Because Because the the loss loss at at TTrenton renton was was of of minor minor strategic strategic imporimpor–
tance, tance, the the British British let let it it go, go, and, and, in in 1777, 1777, British British leadersleaders
planned planned a a two-pronged two-pronged invasion invasion that that they they hoped hoped wouldwould
finish finish off off the the warwar. . British British general general John John Burgoyne Burgoyne waswas
to to lead lead his his army army south south from from Canada. Canada. At At the the same same time,time,
General General William William Howe Howe was was to to capture capture Philadelphia, Philadelphia, thethe
seat seat of of the the colonial colonial government, government, and and then then sail sail up up thethe
Hudson Hudson River River to to join join Burgoyne, Burgoyne, completely completely isolatingisolating
New New England England and and testing testing the the revolutionaries’ revolutionaries’ unityunity..

At At first, first, the the plan plan was was successful. successful. Burgoyne’Burgoyne’s s armyarmy
captured captured outposts outposts in in upstate upstate New New YYork ork (Fort (Fort TTiconicon–
deroga) deroga) and and began began moving moving south. south. Meanwhile, Meanwhile, HoweHowe
drove drove the the patriots patriots from from Philadelphia Philadelphia on on September26,September26,
1777 1777 (forcing (forcing the the Continental Continental Congress Congress to to flee flee the the
capital), capital), and and headed headed north.north.

But But then then the the British British faced faced obstacles. obstacles. General General BurBur–
goyne’goyne’s s troops troops were were slowed slowed by by assorted assorted Loyalists Loyalists seekseek–
ing ing protection protection from from the the revolutionary revolutionary fervor fervor of of thethe
northern northern states, states, and and the the delay delay in in managing managing supporterssupporters
fleeing fleeing from from the the retribution retribution of of patriots patriots allowed allowed guerguer–
rilla rilla fighters fighters and and an an organized organized campcamp of of the the ContinentalContinental
Army Army to to catch catch up up and and harass harass the the British British troops. troops. By By thethe
time time Burgoyne Burgoyne neared neared the the Hudson Hudson RiverRiver, , the the AmeriAmeri–
cans cans had had forced forced him him to to halt, halt, and, and, while while he he waited waited forfor
reinforcements, reinforcements, he he found found himself himself surrounded surrounded by by 6,0006,000
Continental Continental soldiers soldiers and and up up to to 11,000 11,000 militiamen militiamen whowho

left left their their homes homes in in order order to to join join thethe
battle. battle. Recognizing Recognizing their their advantage, advantage, thethe
Americans Americans attacked.attacked.

At At the the end end of of the the fighting, fighting, BurgoyneBurgoyne
surrendered surrendered all all 5,700 5,700 men men remaining remaining in in
his his armyarmy. . This This was was the the Battle Battle of of SaratogaSaratoga..
The The American American victory victory there there proved proved twotwo
things: things: (1) (1) that that the the patriots patriots could could in in factfact
defeat defeat sizeable sizeable regiments regiments of of the the largerlarger
British British Army Army and and (2) (2) that, that, if if the the BritishBritish
were were to to win win this this warwar, , it it was was going going to to be be aa
long, long, expensive expensive affairaffair..

THTH E E FREFRE NCNCH H ALLIAALLIA NCENCE

The The Battle Battle of of Saratoga Saratoga was was also also signifisignifi–
cant cant in in that that it it convinced convinced several several EuropeanEuropean
powers, powers, including including Spain Spain and and the the Dutch,Dutch,
to to fight fight against against the the British. British. Obtaining Obtaining thethe
support support of of France, France, howeverhowever, , was was keykey. . TheThe
French French allied allied themselves themselves with with the the AmeriAmeri–
cans cans for for two two reasons: reasons: (1) (1) they they wanted wanted toto
help help weaken weaken the the British British Empire, Empire, and and (2)(2)
they they wanted wanted access access to to New New WWorld orld tradingtrading
posts, posts, which which they they had had lost lost in in the the FrenchFrench

and and Indian Indian WWarar. . Up Up until until this this point, point, the the French French had had beenbeen
reluctant reluctant to to support support what what had had looked looked like like a a losing losing cause.cause.
The The victory victory at at Saratoga Saratoga helped helped alleviate alleviate these these concerns.concerns.

In In addition addition to to France’France’s s backing, backing, the the Americans Americans alsoalso
received received aid aid from from an an influential influential Frenchman. Frenchman. The The MarquisMarquis
de de Lafayette, Lafayette, a a nineteen-yearnineteen-year-old -old nobleman nobleman committed committed toto
the the republican republican cause cause in in France, France, volunteered volunteered for for the the AmeriAmeri–
can can fight. fight. Lafayette Lafayette became became an an instrumental instrumental leader leader in in thethe
American American Army Army and and played played a a key key role role in in several several pivotalpivotal
American American victories. victories. The The youngest youngest of of all all the the generals generals in in thethe
warwar, , he he successfully successfully lobbied lobbied the the French French to to more more fully fully supsup–
port port the the patriots’ patriots’ cause.cause.

In In the the end, end, French French support support was was vital. vital. The The FrenchFrench
naval naval fleet fleet battled battled Britain’Britain’s s mighty mighty navy navy in in both both the the east-east-
ern ern (European) (European) and and western western (American) (American) Atlantic. Atlantic. TheThe
French French also also fought fought naval naval battles battles in in the the WWest est Indies, Indies, thethe
Mediterranean, Mediterranean, and and India, India, further further diverting diverting British British efef–
forts forts from from the the American American Revolution. Revolution. With With the the French French inin–
volved, volved, the the British British now now had had to to defend defend their their entire entire empire,empire,
not not just just their their North North American American colonies. colonies. By By 1780, 1780, FrenchFrench
armies armies were were actively actively fighting fighting alongside alongside WWashington’ashington’ss
armyarmy, , giving giving a a considerable considerable boost boost to to the the revolutionaries.revolutionaries.

>>>> The The American American victory victory at at TTrenton,renton, after after WWashington’ashington’ss
crossing crossing the the DelaDelaware,ware, depicted depicted in in the the Currier Currier and and IvesIves
lithograph,lithograph, had had little little stratestrateggic ic significancesignificance,, but but it it boostedboosted
morale morale and and enerenerggized ized the the ReRevolution.volution.

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Battle Battle of of Saratoga Saratoga Battle Battle in in New New YYork ork State State in in 1777 1777 between between
the the Continental Continental ArmArmy y and and General General BurgoyneBurgoyne’’s s British British Army Army troops; troops;
Burgoyne Burgoyne surrendersurrendered, ed, giving giving hope hope tto o the the revolutionary revolutionary ef f ortef f ort

113113The The WWar ar f or f or IndependenceIndependence

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Editorial Editorial review review has has deemed deemed that that any any suppressed suppressed content content does does not not materially materially affect affect the the overall overall learning learning experience. experience. Cengage Cengage Learning Learning reserves reserves the the right right to to remove remove additional additional content content at at any any time time if if subsequent subsequent rights rights restrictions restrictions require require it.it.

1702159 – Cengage US ©

THTH E E WWAR AR II N N THE THE WWESTEST

In In the the American American WWest—west est—west of of the the Appalachian Appalachian MounMoun–
tains, tains, south south of of the the Great Great Lakes, Lakes, and and east east of of the the MissisMissis–
sippi sippi River—the River—the Revolutionary Revolutionary WWar ar was was a a brutal brutal andand
violent violent “Indian “Indian WWarar,” ,” where where the the British British and and the the revolurevolu–
tionaries tionaries vied vied for for Indian Indian allies allies and and control control of of the the variousvarious
forts forts European European settlers settlers had had built built since since first first contact. contact. LikeLike
the the colonists, colonists, many many Indians Indians were were greatly greatly divided divided as as toto
which which side side to to support, support, and and the the stakes stakes for for them them were were inin–
credibly credibly high, high, considering considering their their already already plummeting plummeting forfor–
tunes tunes in in North North America. America. If If they they picked picked the the wrong wrong side,side,
they they could could easily easily be be destroyed. destroyed. Several Several major major Indian Indian nana–
tions, tions, including including the the Iroquois, Iroquois, Cherokee, Cherokee, and and Shawnee,Shawnee,
divided divided into into factions factions over over which which side side to to support.support.

The The British, British, in in general, general, had had more more success success finding finding alal–
lies lies and and establishing establishing forts forts near near the the Great Great Lakes, Lakes, and and theythey
often often used used those those forts forts as as staging staging grounds grounds for for raids raids intointo
western western New New YYork ork and and Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania. As As always always duringduring
the the warwar, , as as they they advanced, advanced, they they encountered encountered a a variety variety ofof
Indians Indians and and settlers, settlers, and and they they never never could could be be quite quite suresure
whose whose side side these these people people were were on. on. This This uncertainty uncertainty mademade
the the war war in in the the WWest est a a violent violent and and unstable unstable concoction.concoction.

In In western western New New YYork, ork, for for instance, instance, where where therethere
were were numerous numerous Iroquois Iroquois sympathetic sympathetic to to the the British,British,
Congress Congress in in 1779 1779 authorized authorized the the use use of of 4,500 4,500 soldierssoldiers
to to fight fight under under the the command command of of General General John John SullivanSullivan
to to eradicate eradicate all all Indian Indian villages. villages. The The troops troops succeeded.succeeded.
Not Not only only did did they they destroy destroy up up to to forty forty villages, villages, but but theythey
also also chopped chopped down down every every fruit fruit tree tree and and confiscated confiscated every every

domesticated domesticated plant plant theythey
could could find. find. In In the the midst midst
of of battle, battle, Sullivan’Sullivan’s s officersofficers
offered offered a a toast: toast: “Civilization“Civilization
or or death death to to all all AmericanAmerican
Savages.”Savages.”

In In Ohio Ohio countrycountry, , the the VirVir–
ginian ginian George George Rogers Rogers ClarkClark
sought sought to to end end British British controlcontrol
in in Detroit Detroit and and in in other other vitalvital
throughways throughways to to the the WWest. est. InIn
1779, 1779, Clark Clark captured captured somesome
key key British British and and Indian Indian troopstroops
and and controlled controlled parts parts of of OhioOhio
territoryterritory. . Despite Despite this this adad–
vantage, vantage, a a decisive decisive victoryvictory
proved proved ephemeral, ephemeral, and and unun–
certainty certainty reigned.reigned.

In In perhaps perhaps the the mostmost
horrific horrific example example of of thethe
brutality brutality of of the the war war in in thethe
WWest, est, on on one one occasion occasion inin

1782, 1782, more more than than 150 150 Pennsylvania Pennsylvania militiamen militiamen were were onon
the the hunt hunt for for enemy enemy warriors. warriors. Instead, Instead, they they came came acrossacross
nearly nearly 100 100 Delaware Delaware Indians Indians who who had had converted converted toto
Christianity Christianity and and were were noncombatants noncombatants in in the the warwar. . TheThe
Indians Indians were were starving starving and and were were in in an an unexpected unexpected localoca–
tion tion searching searching for for food. food. Uncertain Uncertain of of the the veracity veracity of of thethe
Delaware Delaware Indians’ Indians’ storystory, , the the militiamen militiamen held held a a councoun–
cil cil and and voted voted to to massacre massacre the the whole whole lot, lot, leading leading to to thethe
execution execution (they (they were were scalped) scalped) of of 2828 men, men, 29 29 women,women,
and and 39 39 children. children. TTwo wo boys boys escaped escaped the the vicious vicious execuexecu–
tion, tion, telling telling the the story story of of what what has has come come to to be be called called thethe
Gnadenhutten Gnadenhutten Massacre, Massacre, named named after after the the PennsylvaniaPennsylvania
town town in in which which it it occurred. occurred. Several Several militiamen militiamen refusedrefused
to to participate participate in in the the slaughterslaughter, , but but the the violence violence and and thethe
uncertainty uncertainty that that surrounded surrounded it it suggest suggest the the frightful frightful nana–
ture ture of of the the war war in in the the WWest.est.

TTHEHE WI WINN TETERR O OF F 11777–777–11778778

Aside Aside from from the the victory victory at at Saratoga Saratoga and and the the FrenchFrench
commitment commitment to to enter enter the the conflict, conflict, the the Americans Americans werewere
slowly slowly losing losing the the warwar. . General General Howe’Howe’s s forces forces were were concon–
tinually tinually besting besting George George WWashington’ashington’s s troops, troops, enablingenabling
the the British British to to capture capture Philadelphia Philadelphia and and other other locations.locations.
And And WWashington, ashington, keeping keeping with with his his chief chief tactic, tactic, kept kept onon
running. running. As As a a result, result, while while Howe’Howe’s s army army wintered wintered inin
the the comforts comforts of of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, WWashington ashington and and his his armyarmy
stayed stayed 20 20 miles miles away away in in the the wilderness wilderness of of VValley alley Forge,Forge,
Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania. It It was was a a harsh harsh winterwinter, , too, too, and and WWashingashing–
ton’ton’s s men men were were close close to to starvation. starvation. They They were were poorlypoorly

>> >> VictorVictory y at at the the Battle Battle of of SarSaratoga atoga was was so so significant significant that that CongressCongress
commissioned commissioned this this 1821 1821 painting,painting, showing showing BurgoBurgoyne’yne’s s surrendersurrender, , toto
displadisplay y in in the the rotunda rotunda of of the the UU.S..S. Capitol, Capitol, where where it it hangs hangs todaytoday..

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114114 CH APT ER CH APT ER 66: : The The ReRevolutionvolution

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Editorial Editorial review review has has deemed deemed that that any any suppressed suppressed content content does does not not materially materially affect affect the the overall overall learning learning experience. experience. Cengage Cengage Learning Learning reserves reserves the the right right to to remove remove additional additional content content at at any any time time if if subsequent subsequent rights rights restrictions restrictions require require it.it.

1702159 – Cengage US ©

equipped, equipped, and, and, although although the the country country had had enjoyed enjoyed oneone
of of its its best best harvests harvests everever, , the the Congress Congress had had allowed allowed thethe
military military supply supply system system to to deteriorate deteriorate to to the the point point of of alal–
most most non-existence. non-existence. The The men’men’s s clothes clothes were were threadbarethreadbare
and and the the troops troops were were losing losing heart. heart. From From the the perspectiveperspective
of of the the winter winter at at VValley alley Forge, Forge, the the Revolutionary Revolutionary WWarar
wouwould ld nnot ot lalast st llong. ong. The The British British would would win win easily easily andand
quicklyquickly..

And And VValley alley Forge Forge wasn’wasn’t t alone. alone. Later Later in in the the warwar, , inin
1779, 1779, the the army army encamped encamped at at Morristown, Morristown, New New JerseyJersey,,
nearly nearly disbanded disbanded so so that that soldiers soldiers could could search search for for foodfood
and and clothes clothes during during a a particularly particularly harsh harsh spell spell of of winterwinter..
For For most most soldiers soldiers who who experienced experienced it, it, Morristown Morristown waswas
truly truly the the low low point point of of the the warwar..

66-2-2cc The The Third Third Phase Phase of of the the WarWar, , 1778–17811778–1781
But But the the victory victory at at Saratoga Saratoga had had still still another another ssurprisurpris–
ing ing effect, effect, one one that that would would change change the the shape shape of of the the warwar..
When When the the snow snow finally finally melted, melted, colonists colonists realized realized thethe
British British had had changed changed tactics tactics once once again, again, this this time time in in rere–
sponse sponse to to Saratoga. Saratoga. The The patriots’ patriots’ victory victory there there mademade
it it apparent apparent that that Britain Britain would would have have to to commit commit moremore
troops troops in in order order to to win, win, and and to to do do this this it it needed needed to to raiseraise
moneymoney, , most most plausibly plausibly by by raising raising taxes taxes in in Britain. Britain. ThisThis
was was wildly wildly unpopular unpopular in in Britain, Britain, and and the the people’people’s s rere–
sistance sistance to to increased increased taxes taxes forced forced Parliament Parliament to to makemake
a a peace peace offering offering to to the the revolutionaries. revolutionaries. Parliament’Parliament’ss
peace peace offering offering would would have have maintained maintained the the colonialcolonial
status status of of America America but but abandoned abandoned British British attempts attempts toto
tax tax the the colonists—returning colonists—returning things things to to the the way way they they hadhad
been been in in 1763. 1763. In In some some ways, ways, it it was was an an offer offer to to returnreturn
to to the the days days of of salutary salutary neglect. neglect. But But to to the the patriots, patriots, thisthis
offer offer was was unacceptable; unacceptable; they they now now wanted wanted freedom.freedom.

GG IVIIVI NG NG UP UP OON N NENE W W ENEN GLGL ANAN DD

InsInsteatead d of of attempting attempting the the costly costly venture venture of of replacingreplacing
Burgoyne’Burgoyne’s s troops troops in in an an effort effort to to capture capture New New England,England,
the the British British planned planned to to contain contain New New England England by by holdingholding
New New YYork ork while while harassing harassing the the coastline coastline and and the the SouthSouth
(see (see Map Map 6.2). 6.2). They They also also aimed aimed to to demoralize demoralize the the patripatri–
ots ots and and break break the the will will of of the the fighters. fighters. For For example, example, thethe
British British recognized recognized that that the the American American treasury treasury had had littlelittle
to to offer offer its its generals, generals, so so they they tried tried to to “buy” “buy” major major AmeriAmeri–
can can leaders, leaders, hoping hoping the the defection defection of of prominent prominent patriotspatriots
would would spread spread disaffection. disaffection. The The purchase purchase of of GeneralGeneral
Benedict Benedict Arnold Arnold in in 1779 1779 (for (for £20,000) £20,000) was was their their chiefchief
victory victory on on this this front. front. Arnold Arnold had had been been a a revolutionaryrevolutionary
hero, hero, serving serving in in many many of of the the war’war’s s major major battles, battles, includinclud–
ing ing TTiconderoga iconderoga and and Saratoga, Saratoga, where where he he had had been been badlybadly
injured. injured. After After having having invested invested his his personal personal fortune fortune inin

the the war war effort, effort, he he was was somewhat somewhat suddenly suddenly charged charged withwith
corruption corruption by by political political adversaries adversaries and and was was investigatedinvestigated
by by the the Congress. Congress. He He thus thus was was a a readyready, , bitter bitter target target forfor
bribing. bribing. But But aside aside from from Arnold, Arnold, Britain’Britain’s s bribery bribery policypolicy
proved proved largely largely unsuccessful.unsuccessful.

BRBR ITITAIAI N’S N’S SOUTHERSOUTHER N N PLANPLAN

MeanwhilMeanwhile, e, the the British British prepared prepared to to invade invade the the southsouth–
ern ern colonies. colonies. Understanding Understanding that that the the South South possessedpossessed
more more natural natural resources resources than than the the North, North, they they sought sought toto
preserve preserve their their claim claim to to at at least least that that region. region. They They alsoalso
believed believed that that Loyalists Loyalists were were abundant abundant in in the the South,South,
so so they they hoped hoped to to exacerbate exacerbate divisions divisions along along Loyalist–Loyalist–
patriot patriot lines. lines. They They had had several several reasons reasons to to believe believe this,this,
the the main main one one being being that, that, in in the the South, South, the the Revolutionary Revolutionary
WWar ar really really was was a a civil civil war war between between frontiersmen, frontiersmen, whowho
generally generally favored favored independence, independence, and and landholders,landholders,
who who usually usually sided sided with with the the British British in in order order to to protectprotect
their their assets.assets.

The The British British miscalculated miscalculated the the amount amount of of LoyalistLoyalist
support support in in the the South, South, howeverhowever. . For For one one thing, thing, LoyalistsLoyalists
lacked lacked the the fervor fervor and and militancy militancy of of the the patriots. patriots. For For anan–
otherother, , Loyalists Loyalists were were not not as as prevalent prevalent as as British British leadersleaders
had had hoped. hoped. The The British British plan plan was was therefore therefore doomed doomed fromfrom
the the beginning.beginning.

Indeed, Indeed, throughout throughout the the colonies, colonies, north north and and south,south,
it it had had become become a a dangerous dangerous thing thing to to admit admit sympathy sympathy toto
the the British British this this late late in in the the warwar. . As As the the British British movedmoved
through through the the area area hoping hoping to to unearth unearth Loyalist Loyalist support,support,
the the region region broke broke into into what what has has to to be be called called civil civil warwar,,
as as old old grudges grudges and and family family squabbles squabbles led led to to widespreadwidespread
violence. violence. Patriots Patriots often often subjected subjected Loyalists Loyalists to to publicpublic
humiliation, humiliation, as as they they looted looted their their land land and and ransackedransacked
their their homes.homes.

“I “I saw saw several several of of the the men men roast roast theirtheir
old old shoes shoes and and eat eat them,them, and and I I wwasas
afterwafterwards ards informed informed by by one one of of thethe
officers’ officers’ wwaitersaiters,, that that some some of of thethe
officers officers killed killed and and ate ate a a favorite favorite littlelittle
dog dog that that belonged belonged to to one one of of them.them.””

—— JJ pp mm ,, CC ,,oo ssee pp hh ll uu mm bb aa rrtt ii nn oo nn tt ii nn ee nn ttaa ll ss oo ll dd ii ee rr
oo nn nn oo rrtt hh ee rr nn CC aa mm ppaa ii gg nn ss oo ff tt hh ee ww ii nn tt ee rr oo ff 11778800

115115The The WWar ar f or f or IndependenceIndependence

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Editorial Editorial review review has has deedeemed med that that any any suppressed suppressed content content does does not not materially materially affect affect the the overall overall learning learning experience. experience. Cengage Cengage Learning Learning reserves reserves the the right right to to remove remove additional additional content content at at any any time time if if subsequent subsequent rights rights restrictions restrictions require require it.it.

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40°N40°N

35°N35°N

80°W80°W 75°W75°W

A T L A N T I CA T L A N T I C
OO NNC E AC E A

NEW NEW YORKYORK

DELAWAREDELAWARE

MARYLANDMARYLAND

VIRGINIAVIRGINIA

GEORGIAGEORGIA

SOUTHSOUTH
CAROLINACAROLINA

NORTHNORTH
CAROLINACAROLINA

NEWNEW
JERSEYJERSEY

PENNSYLVANIPENNSYLVANIAA

FortFort
MoultrieMoultrie

Fort Fort SunburySunbury

FortFort
CharlotteCharlotte

NewNew
YorkYork

PhiladelphiaPhiladelphia

CharlottesvilleCharlottesville

NorfolkNorfolk
PortsmouthPortsmouth

HillsboroHillsboro

CharlotteCharlotte

CherawCheraw

Elk Elk HillHill

SalemSalem

ElizabethtownElizabethtown

WilmingtonWilmington

GeorgetownGeorgetown

BeaufortBeaufort

SalisburySalisbury

OrangeburgOrangeburg

RichmondRichmond
PetersburgPetersburg

SavannahSavannah
Oct. Oct. 9, 9, 17791779

CharlestonCharleston
May May 12, 12, 17801780

BattleBattle
of of the the CapesCapes
Sept. Sept. 5, 5, 17811781

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CowpensCowpens
Jan. Jan. 17, 17, 17811781

Kings Kings MountainMountain
Oct. Oct. 7, 7, 17801780 YorktownYorktown

Aug. Aug. 3030–O–Oct. ct. 19, 19, 17811781
Surrender Surrender of of CornwallisCornwallis

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American American movementsmovements

British British movementsmovements

American American victoryvictory

British British victoryvictory

FortFort

Map Map 6.26.2 Re Revolutionary volutionary War War in in the the SouthSouth
>> >> This This map map details details the the American American RevolutionarRevolutionary y WWar ar in in the the southern southern colonies, colonies, strstretchingetching
from from NeNew w YYork ork to to Georgia,Georgia, and and shows shows hohow w far far inland inland manmany y of of the the battles battles extended.extended.

116116 CH APT ER CH APT ER 66: : The The ReRevoluvolutiontion

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Editorial Editorial review review has has deemed deemed that that any any suppressed suppressed content content does does not not materially materially affect affect the the overall overall learning learning experience. experience. Cengage Cengage Learning Learning reserves reserves the the right right to to remove remove additional additional content content at at any any time time if if subsequent subsequent rights rights restrictions restrictions require require it.it.

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In In 1779, 1779, the the British British landed landed a a large large army army at at CharlesCharles–
ton. ton. Commanded Commanded by by General General Sir Sir Charles Charles Cornwallis, Cornwallis, thethe
army army speedily speedily captured captured Savannah, Savannah, Georgia, Georgia, and and CharlesCharles–
ton, ton, South South Carolina. Carolina. Through Through 1780, 1780, Cornwallis Cornwallis continuedcontinued
to to capture capture southern southern towns, towns, and and he he planned planned to to march march northnorth
to to subdue subdue the the rest rest of of the the colonies, colonies, particularly particularly Virginia,Virginia,
which which he he viewed viewed as as crucial crucial to to holding holding the the South.South.

WASHWASH ININ GTON GTON AA ND ND GG RERE ENEN E’S E’S STRSTR AATT EGYEGY
FORFOR VICTORY VICTORY

In In 1780, 1780, the the Continental Continental Army Army in in the the South, South, now now led led byby
Nathanael Nathanael Greene, Greene, attempted attempted to to counter counter Cornwallis’Cornwallis’s s sucsuc–
cesses cesses by by fleeing fleeing inland inland and and thus thus sucking sucking the the British British ArmyArmy
farther farther into into the the continent, continent, away away from from the the coast. coast. This This apap–
proach proach served served two two purposes: purposes: (1) (1) it it stretched stretched British British supplysupply
lines, lines, and and (2) (2) it it countered countered British British attempts attempts to to rally rally LoyalistLoyalist
opposition. opposition. By By drawing drawing the the British British away away from from their their supplies,supplies,
Greene Greene hoped hoped to to force force them them to to “live “live off off the the land,” land,” a a militarymilitary
euphemism euphemism for for stealing stealing food food from from the the people. people. Greene Greene andand
WWashington ashington expected expected that that any any support support for for the the British British wouldwould
evaporate evaporate as as hungry hungry British British soldiers soldiers began began to to raid raid farms.farms.

Their Their plan plan succeeded. succeeded. For For several several months, months, CornCorn–
wallis wallis pursued pursued the the Continental Continental Army Army across across the the CaroCaro–
linas linas (note (note Cornwallis’Cornwallis’s s movements movements in in Map Map 6.2). 6.2). BritishBritish
supplies supplies gradually gradually ran ran low low and, and, just just as as WWashington ashington andand
Greene Greene had had predicted, predicted, the the troops troops began began stealing stealing fromfrom
once-sympathetic once-sympathetic farmers. farmers. On On top top of of this, this, when when the the twotwo
armies armies actually actually fought, fought, the the Continental Continental soldiers soldiers inflictedinflicted
major major casualties casualties on on the the British. British. Although Although the the British British wonwon
most most of of the the engagements, engagements, meaning meaning they they took took control control ofof
the the territory territory being being fought fought overover, , the the CoContinental ntinental stratestrate–
gies gies made made British British victories victories costlycostly..

In In early early 1781, 1781, Cornwallis Cornwallis was was forced forced to to cease cease his his purpur–
suit suit and and take take his his army army north, north, into into Virginia, Virginia, to to await await reinrein–
forcements. forcements. Faced Faced with with mounting mounting casualties, casualties, he he plannedplanned
to to reunite reunite with with his his naval naval fleet fleet at at Chesapeake Chesapeake BayBay..

YYOROR KK TOWN TOWN ANAN D D VIVI CTOCTORYRY

The The problem problem with with Cornwallis’Cornwallis’s s plan plan was was positioning:positioning:
while while Cornwallis Cornwallis waited waited for for the the British British fleet fleet (which (which thethe
French French had had forced forced to to retreat retreat to to New New YYork), ork), his his army army waswas
stranded stranded at at the the tip tip of of the the YYorktown orktown peninsula peninsula in in Virginia.Virginia.
Seizing Seizing the the opportunity opportunity to to attack, attack, WWashington ashington moved moved aa
combined combined force force of of American American and and French French troops troops acrossacross
the the lower lower peninsula; peninsula; the the American American victory victory was was completecomplete
when when the the French French naval naval fleet fleet arrived arrived just just before before the the BritBrit–
ish ish fleet fleet could could rescue rescue Cornwallis’Cornwallis’s s 27,000-man 27,000-man armyarmy. . TheThe
British British found found themselves themselves trapped trapped on on the the peninsula.peninsula.

After After a a night night of of bombardment, bombardment, on on October October 19,19,
1781, 1781, Cornwallis Cornwallis turned turned his his sword sword over over to to WWashington.ashington.
More More accuratelyaccurately, , an an emissary emissary for for Cornwallis Cornwallis handed handed it it toto

American American general general Benjamin Benjamin Lincoln, Lincoln, whom whom WWashingtonashington
appointed appointed to to accept accept the the surrender surrender when when he he learned learned thatthat
the the British British commander commander had had refused refused to to offer offer his his swordsword
personallypersonally. . When When news news of of Cornwallis’Cornwallis’s s surrender surrender reachedreached
Britain, Britain, King King George George III III refused refused to to accept accept defeat, defeat, leadlead–
ing ing to to a a tremendous tremendous rift rift between between the the king king and and a a growgrow–
ing ing minority minority in in Parliament Parliament who who saw saw the the efforts efforts to to keepkeep
the the rebelling rebelling colonies colonies as as a a poor poor investment. investment. DespiteDespite
the the surrendersurrender, , then, then, smaller smaller battles battles continued continued for for more more
than than a a yearyear..

NEWBUNEWBURGH RGH CCONSPIRONSPIR ACYACY

Nonetheless, Nonetheless, after after YYorktown, orktown, peace peace negotiations negotiations began,began,
and and yet yet because because of of the the king’king’s s refusal refusal to to admit admit defeat, defeat, disdis–
cussions cussions went went nowhere nowhere for for more more than than a a yearyear. . The The armiesarmies
remained remained mobilized, mobilized, pitched pitched for for battle, battle, sometimes sometimes eveneven
engaged engaged in in skirmishes. skirmishes. And And as as always, always, American American troopstroops
continued continued to to be be underpaid underpaid and and underunder-supplied. -supplied. In In thisthis
atmosphere, atmosphere, several several American American military military leaders leaders proposedproposed
a a coup, coup, seeking seeking to to take take control control from from the the relatively relatively imim–
potent potent Continental Continental Congress Congress in in order order to to implement implement aa
tax tax to to pay pay for for unpaid unpaid expenses, expenses, including including their their own own salasala–
ries. ries. The The Continental Continental Army Army was was at at thethe time time positionedpositioned
in in Newburgh, Newburgh, New New YYork, ork, about about 60 60 miles miles north north of of NewNew
YYork ork CityCity, , which which was was still still occupied occupied by by the the British, British, andand
thus thus their their plan plan became became called called the the Newburgh Newburgh ConspiracyConspiracy..

With With the the British British in in close close striking striking range, range, any any hint hint ofof
turmoil turmoil within within the the Continental Continental Army Army might might have have propro–
voked voked Britain Britain to to resume resume hostilities. hostilities. But But WWashingtonashington
rapidly rapidly quashed quashed the the whispered whispered conspiracyconspiracy, , principallyprincipally
by by demonstrating demonstrating the the costs costs of of the the war war on on him him personperson–
allyally. . The The generals generals were were not not the the only only ones ones who who had had
suffered suffered during during the the warwar, , he he said, said, reminding reminding them them that that inin–
dependence dependence was was more more consequential consequential than than worldly worldly gain.gain.
WWashington’ashington’s s words words derailed derailed the the revolt, revolt, but but the the unrestunrest
demonstrated demonstrated the the significance significance of of the the peace peace treaty treaty thatthat
was was to to come.come.

66-2-2dd Peace Peace Negotiations, Negotiations, 1782–17831782–1783
With With battle battle mostly mostly overover, , the the American American team team ofof
negotiators—Benjamin negotiators—Benjamin Franklin, Franklin, John John JayJay, , and and JohnJohn
Adams—found Adams—found themselves themselves in in a a difficult difficult situation. situation. TheyThey
traveled traveled to to Paris Paris for for the the talks talks in in 1782, 1782, with with instructions instructions toto
consult consult with with the the French. French. HoweverHowever, , the the Americans Americans knewknew
that that both both France France and and its its allyally, , Spain, Spain, had had territorial territorial goalsgoals
of of their their own own in in the the New New WWorld, orld, goals goals that that the the AmericansAmericans
did did not not want want to to encourage. encourage. As As a a result, result, Franklin, Franklin, JayJay, , andand
Adams Adams determined determined that that it it was was in in their their best best interest interest toto
negotiate negotiate with with the the British British separately separately and and deal deal with with thethe
French French laterlater..

117117The The WWar ar f or f or IndependenceIndependence

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Editorial Editorial review review has has deemed deemed that that any any suppressed suppressed content content does does not not materially materially affect affect the the overall overall learning learning experience. experience. Cengage Cengage Learning Learning reserves reserves the the right right to to remove remove additional additional content content at at any any time time if if subsequent subsequent rights rights restrictions restrictions require require it.it.

1702159 – Cengage US ©

THTH E E TRETRE AATT Y Y OOF F PPARAR IS IS ((11783783))

The The treaty treaty that that Franklin, Franklin, JayJay, , and and Adams Adams fashioned fashioned inin
1782 1782 included included so so many many provisions provisions favorable favorable to to the the AmerAmer–
icans icans that that it it has has frequently frequently been been called called the the greatest greatest tritri–
umph umph in in the the history history of of American American diplomacydiplomacy. . BritaBritain in hadhad
its its own own interests interests at at heart, heart, too, too, of of course: course: TTo o guaranteeguarantee
that that France France did did not not have have the the best best trading trading rights rights to to thethe
New New WWorld, orld, Britain Britain willingly willingly offered offered generous generous termsterms
to to the the Americans Americans in in terms terms of of land land and and trading trading rights.rights.
America America and and Britain Britain signed signed a a treaty treaty in in November November 1782.1782.
In In doing doing so, so, Franklin, Franklin, Adams, Adams, and and Jay Jay violated violated one one ofof
the the provisions provisions of of the the Franco-American Franco-American Alliance Alliance of of 1778:1778:
namelynamely, , that that neither neither France France nor nor America America would would negotinegoti–
ate ate a a separate separate peace peace with with the the British. British. Nevertheless, Nevertheless, thethe
French French were were eager eager to to end end the the warwar, , and and on on January January 2,2,
1783, 1783, preliminary preliminary treaties treaties were were signed signed between between BritainBritain
and and France France and and Britain Britain and and Spain, Spain, and and on on February February 44
hostilities hostilities formally formally ceased. ceased. All All parties parties signed signed the the TTreatyreaty
of of Paris Paris (1783) (1783) in in September September 1783.1783.

There There were were five five major major parts parts to to the the TTreaty reaty of of ParisParis
of of 1783: 1783: (1) (1) American American independence; independence; (2) (2) American American exex–
pansion pansion west west to to the the Mississippi Mississippi River River and and north north to to thethe
Great Great Lakes Lakes (a (a much much greater greater area area than than Americans Americans hadhad
thus thus far far settled); settled); (3) (3) freedom freedom of of all all parties parties to to travel travel thethe
Mississippi Mississippi River; River; (4) (4) Spanish Spanish control control of of Florida; Florida; andand
(5) (5) “no “no lawful lawful impediment” impediment” placed placed on on BritBrit–
ish ish merchants merchants seeking seeking to to recouprecoup
debts debts from from America. America. The The war war waswas
finally finally overover..

6-3 6-3 SIGNIFICANCESIGNIFICANCE
OF OF THE THE WARWAR

The The six six long long years years of of the the RevRev–
olutionary olutionary WWar ar were were filledfilled
with with suffering. suffering. A A doctordoctor
in in the the Continental Continental Army Army
suggested suggested that that American American
losses losses totaled totaled 70,000, 70,000, butbut
the the number number of of warwar-related-related
deaths deaths was was more more likely likely 25,000,25,000,
with with perhaps perhaps another another 25,00025,000
injured. injured. Disease Disease and and infecinfec–
tion tion killed killed off off many many more.more.
Indeed, Indeed, the the war war took took placeplace
in in the the midst midst of of a a widespreadwidespread
smallpox smallpox epidemic, epidemic, whichwhich
may may have have killed killed as as many many asas
130,000 130,000 colonists. colonists. (W(Washingtonashington

wisely wisely had had his his troops troops inoculated, inoculated, perhaps perhaps his his smartestsmartest
move move in in the the entire entire campaign.) campaign.) But But it it was was nevertheless nevertheless aa
long long warwar, , longer longer than than the the Civil Civil WWarar, , WWorld orld WWar ar I, I, or or WWorldorld
WWar ar II.II.

Furthermore, Furthermore, the the war war had had divided divided the the colonistscolonists
between between Loyalists, Loyalists, rebels, rebels, and and those those indifferent indifferent to to eithereither
side. side. It It had had also also greatly greatly disrupted disrupted daily daily life, life, as as soldiers soldiers
were were recruited recruited to to join join the the army army and and leave leave their their familiesfamilies
for for extended extended periods periods of of time, time, women women were were asked asked to to
shoulder shoulder a a heavier heavier burden burden in in their their household household and and in in civiccivic
life, life, and and slaves slaves ontemplated ontemplated their their future future in in a a new new AmericanAmerican
republic, republic, one one that that showed showed little little sign sign of of granting granting them them
freedom. freedom. Beyond Beyond these these tremendous tremendous disruptions disruptions in in daily daily life,life,
the the American American war war for for independence independence had had six six major major results.results.

66-3-3aa The The Impact Impact on on PoliticsPolitics
PoliticallyPolitically, , the the American American Revolution Revolution was was the the first first worldworld
conflict conflict whose whose winners winners embraced embraced the the promise promise of of thethe
Enlightenment. Enlightenment. In In promising promising the the “natural “natural rights” rights” of of life,life,
libertyliberty, , and and propertyproperty, , the the American American Revolution Revolution served served asas
an an ideological ideological model model for for later later revolutions revolutions in in France France andand
in in Central Central and and South South America, America, among among others.others.

But But the the Revolution Revolution was was a a bellwether bellwether of of not not onlyonly
liberty liberty but but also also republican republican democracydemocracy. . The The AmeriAmeri–
can can revolutionaries revolutionaries hoped hoped their their struggles struggles would would curbcurb
the the system system of of Old Old WWorld orld aristocracyaristocracy. . They They no no longerlonger

wanted wanted to to be be ruled ruled by by a a few few powerful powerful peoplepeople
with with long-entrenched long-entrenched methods methods of of perpetuatingperpetuating
their their wealth wealth and and status. status. Many Many rebels rebels also also diddid

not not want want an an established established church church that that denieddenied
freedom freedom of of belief. belief. No No one one was was sure sure whatwhat
would would arise arise in in the the place place of of Old Old WWorld orld arar–
istocracyistocracy, , but but they they knew knew that, that, after after thethe
Revolution, Revolution, the the old old system system was was dead.dead.

>> >> The The experience experience ofof
fighting fighting for for their their politicalpolitical
independence independence was was thethe
impetus impetus for for the the mountingmounting
tide tide of of patriotism patriotism andand
patriotic patriotic imagery imagery thatthat
followfollowed ed the the RevolutionarRevolutionaryy
WWarar. . As As shown shown herhere,e,
the the bald bald eagle eagle becamebecame
a a stalwart stalwart symbol symbol ofof
American American strength.strength.
American American School/School/ The The BridgemanBridgeman Art Art LibrarLibrar yy

118118 CH APT ER CH APT ER 66: : The The ReRevolutionvolution

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Editorial Editorial review review has has deemed deemed that that any any suppressed suppressed content content does does not not materially materially affect affect the the overall overall learning learning experience. experience. Cengage Cengage Learning Learning reserves reserves the the right right to to remove remove additional additional content content at at any any time time if if subsequent subsequent rights rights restrictions restrictions require require it.it.

1702159 – Cengage US ©

EventuallyEventually, , this this awareness awareness would would lead lead to to the the formalformal
separation separation oof f church church and and state state and and limited limited (but (but growing)growing)
access access to to the the ballot. ballot. During During the the revolutionary revolutionary era, era, accessaccess
to to the the ballot ballot was was still still dependent dependent on on owning owning propertyproperty,,
which which usually usually excluded excluded women women and and African African Americans,Americans,
but but the the Revolutionary Revolutionary WWar ar geared geared up up the the machinery machinery forfor
a a more more expansive expansive democracy democracy in in the the future.future.

66-3-3bb The The Impact Impact on on American American NationalismNationalism
Before Before the the American American Revolution, Revolution, the the colonists colonists living living inin
what what became became the the United United States States did did not not think think of of themthem–
selves selves as as having having a a national national culture culture fundamentally fundamentally uniqueunique
from from Britain’Britain’s. s. In In terms terms of of nationalitynationality, , most most colonistscolonists
considered considered themselves themselves as as their their great-grandfathers great-grandfathers were,were,
British. British. But But the the French French and and Indian Indian WWar ar and and the the AmeriAmeri–
can can Revolution Revolution unified unified the the colonists colonists under under a a newnew, , ideoideo–
logical logical definition definition of of what what it it meant meant to to be be an an American.American.

A A nation nation is is composed composed of of people people who who recognize recognize that that theythey
share share certain certain qualities qualities that that set set them them apart apart from from other other nations,nations,
whether whether those those qualities qualities are are ideological, ideological, political, political, linguistic,linguistic,
religious, religious, cultural, cultural, racial, racial, or or historical. historical. For For Americans, Americans, in in thethe
revolutionary revolutionary era era and and afterafter, , a a strong strong belief belief in in democracy democracy andand
the the experience experience of of fighting fighting for for their their political political independenceindependence
were were the the impetus impetus for for the the mounting mounting tide tide of of patriotism patriotism thatthat
followed followed the the Revolutionary Revolutionary WWarar. . The The question question of of whatwhat
it it meant meant to to be be an an American American was was now now defined defined largely largely by by aa
commitment commitment to to republican republican ideals ideals and and a a desire desire to to fight fight forfor
them. them. It It would, would, howeverhowever, , take take time time for for that that ideologicalideological
meaning meaning to to take take hold. hold. Most Most Americans Americans still still emphasizedemphasized
local, local, state, state, and and regional regional identities identities over over that that of of their their nation.nation.
But But the the seeds seeds of of a a national national identity identity premised premised on on the the beliefbelief
in in a a set set of of ideas ideas were were planted planted during during the the Revolutionary Revolutionary WWarar..

6-6-3c 3c The The Impact Impact on on SlaverySlavery
By By illustrating illustrating the the contradiction contradiction between between slavery slavery andand
freedom, freedom, the the Revolutionary Revolutionary WWar ar triggered triggered the the abolition abolition ofof
slavery slavery in in the the North. North. During During the the warwar, , slaves slaves participatedparticipated
in in the the fight fight on on both both sides, sides, although although the the British British welcomedwelcomed
them them more more willingly willingly than than the the revolutionaries. revolutionaries. CornwalCornwal–
lis lis himself himself enlisted enlisted 5,000 5,000 slaves, slaves, promising promising to to free free themthem
after after the the warwar. . At At the the same same time, time, many many slaves slaves simply simply fledfled
their their masters masters during during the the confusion confusion of of battle. battle. In In aall, ll, therethere
were were about about 50,000 50,000 fewer fewer slaves slaves after after the the war war than than beforebefore
it. it. Some Some former former slaves slaves went went to to New New England, England, some some wentwent
to to Canada, Canada, and and many many stayed stayed in in the the South South to to live live freelyfreely..

The The progress progress of of formal formal abolition abolition after after the the war war waswas
slow slow and and gradual, gradual, but but it it was was progress progress nonetheless. nonetheless. Most Most ofof
the the changes changes were were in in the the North, North, where where slavery slavery was was slowlyslowly,,
state state by by state, state, abolished. abolished. But But some some advances advances were were eveneven
made made in in the the South, South, where where the the vast vast majority majority of of slaves slaves livedlived

(see (see Map Map 6.3). 6.3). Virginia Virginia and and Maryland Maryland made made it it easier easier forfor
owners owners to to (or (or willingly willingly free) free) their their slaves, slaves, andandmanumitmanumit
some some if if not not many many revolutionaries revolutionaries chose chose to to do do so. so. By By 1800,1800,
one one in in ten ten African African Americans Americans in in the the Chesapeake Chesapeake regionregion
was was free. free. This This meant meant there there were were large large communities communities wherewhere
escaped escaped slaves slaves could could hide hide in in the the growing growing cities cities of of thethe
Chesapeake. Chesapeake. Nevertheless, Nevertheless, slavery slavery had had not not been been abolishedabolished
in in the the South, South, and and leaders leaders like like Thomas Thomas Jefferson, Jefferson, who who werewere
well well aware aware of of the the contradiction contradiction between between the the practice practice ofof
slavery slavery and and the the rhetoric rhetoric of of independence, independence, never never freedfreed
more more than than a a tiny tiny number number of of their their slaves.slaves.

The The most most dramatic dramatic changes changes occurred occurred in in the the NorthNorth
when when abolition abolition was was set set in in motion motion legallylegally. . VVermont ermont outlawedoutlawed
slavery slavery in in its its first first constitution constitution in in 1777. 1777. In In Massachusetts Massachusetts andand

GAGA

(TN)(TN)

(MISSISSIPPI(MISSISSIPPI
TERRITORY)TERRITORY)

NORTHWESTNORTHWEST
TERRITORYTERRITORY

(KY)(KY)

VAVA

NYNY

PAPA

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NHNH

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NJNJ

MAMA

CTCT

RIRI

MDMD

MajorityMajority

20–50%20–50%

5–20%5–20%

Less Less than than 5%5%

Other Other U.S U.S territoryterritory

Percentage Percentage of of population population blackblack

Map Map 6.36.3 Distribution Distribution of of AfricanAfrican
American American Population, Population, 17901790
>> >> This This map map shows shows the the perpercentage centage ofof
population population in in the the states states that that was was blacblack,k,
demonstrating demonstrating that that most most of of the the northernnorthern
states states had had fefewer wer than than fifive ve perpercent cent ofof
their their population population as as blacblack,k, and and increasesincreases
as as the the further further south south you you look.look.

manumit manumit TTo o willingly willingly f ree f ree oneone’’s s slavesslaves

119119Signif icance Signif icance of of the the WWarar

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New New Hampshire, Hampshire, slaves slaves sued sued for for their their freedom—and freedom—and won.won.
In In the the Middle Middle States, States, where where the the slave slave population population was was largerlarger,,
progress progress was was slowerslower, , but but both both Pennsylvania Pennsylvania and and New New YYorkork
favored favored gradual gradual emancipation, emancipation, which, which, in in Pennsylvania’Pennsylvania’ss
case, case, meant meant that that all all slaves slaves born born in in 1780 1780 or or later later were were freefree
when when they they turned turned twenty-one. twenty-one. Throughout Throughout the the North, North, fivefive
states states allowed allowed African African Americans Americans to to vote, vote, and and in in total, total, byby
1810, 1810, three-quarters three-quarters of of the the 30,000 30,000 African African Americans Americans livliv–
ing ing in in the the North North were were free. free. By By 1840, 1840, there there were were only only 1,0001,000
slaves slaves in in the the North, North, and and the the freed freed slaves slaves and and their their childrenchildren
had had developed developed large large social social institutions, institutions, including including variousvarious
sects sects of of historically historically black black churches churches and and numerous numerous fraternalfraternal
organizations, organizations, such such as as the the African African American American Masons.Masons.

Perhaps Perhaps most most importantlyimportantly, , howeverhowever, , by by 1790, 1790, allall
states states except except Georgia Georgia and and South South Carolina Carolina had had outlawedoutlawed
the the importation importation of of slaves slaves from from abroad. abroad. As As Americans Americans
began began to to consider consider the the political political meanings meanings of of liberty liberty
and and freedom, freedom, they they were were confronted confronted by by the the obvious obvious
contradiction contradiction of of having having freed freed themselves themselves of of the the CrownCrown
while while others others in in their their midst midst lived lived in in slaveryslavery. . After After the the
Revolution, Revolution, only only compromise compromise would would keep keep the the issue issue ofof
slavery slavery at at baybay, , as as the the North North and and South South took took different different
tactics tactics in in handling handling the the contentious contentious issue.issue.

66-3-3dd The The Impact Impact on on Native Native AmericaAmerica
The The war war also also greatly greatly affected affected the the fate fate of of Native Native AmeriAmeri–
cans, cans, who who were were generally generally worse worse off off after after the the war war thanthan
before before it. it. By By the the time time of of the the Revolution, Revolution, there there were were fewfew
Indian Indian nations nations still still living living on on the the Atlantic Atlantic Coast, Coast, as as diseasedisease
and and violence violence had had decimated decimated the the Indians Indians of of that that region.region.
The The most most powerful powerful Indian Indian nations nations in in contact contact with with thethe
colonists colonists lived lived between between the the Appalachian Appalachian Mountains Mountains andand
the the Mississippi Mississippi RiverRiver, , where where the the Iroquois Iroquois dominated dominated in in
the the North North and and the the ChoctawChoctaw, , Seminole, Seminole, Creek, Creek, and and CherCher–
okee okee dominated dominated in in the the South. South. The The battles battles throughout throughout NaNa–
tive tive America America were were unspeakably unspeakably harsh harsh on on them, them, though, though, asas
the the war war often often served served as as a a pretext pretext to to remove remove IndiaIndian n nationsnations
and and empty empty Indian Indian land land for for land-hungry land-hungry colonists. colonists. AnyoneAnyone
could could become become a a casualty casualty on on the the frontierfrontier. . By By the the end end ofof
the the warwar, , nearly nearly one-third one-third of of the the Iroquois Iroquois nation nation was was dead.dead.
Their Their supremacy supremacy in in the the land land between between the the AppalachiansAppalachians
and and the the Great Great Lakes Lakes did did not not survive survive long long after after the the warwar..

In In addition addition to to these these violent violent encounters, encounters, with with thethe
war war overover, , the the nations nations of of Native Native America America had had to to contend contend
with with an an expanding expanding nation nation of of settlers settlers who who respectedrespected
no no practical practical western western boundary boundary and and answered answered to to no no
governmental governmental authority authority preventing preventing them them from from
moving moving farther farther west. west. This This situation situation portended portended a a grimgrim
outlook outlook for for American American IndiansIndians. . WhWherere e ononcece the they y ccoulouldd
play play the the varying varying European European nations nations off off one one another another toto

their their advantage, advantage, now now they they had had to to contend contend with with a a singlesingle
expansive expansive nation nation that that had had shown shown them them little little respect respect
in in the the past.past.

6-6-3e 3e The The Impact Impact on on WomenWomen
WWomen omen played played key key roles roles during during the the Revolution. Revolution. TheyThey
enforced enforced boycotts, boycotts, sewed sewed clothing clothing made made of of nonimportnonimport–
ed ed fibers, fibers, raised raised impressive impressive funds funds for for the the ContinentalContinental
ArmyArmy, , and and sometimes sometimes even even engaged engaged in in battle. battle. This This waswas
a a significant significant shift shift from from the the colonial colonial era, era, when when womenwomen
only only rarely rarely protested protested their their total total exclusion exclusion from from politics.politics.
New New Jersey’Jersey’s s constitution constitution of of 1776 1776 opened opened the the franchisefranchise
to to “all “all free free inhabitants” inhabitants” who who were were worth worth at at least least fiftyfifty
pounds, pounds, thus thus allowing allowing many many New New Jersey Jersey women women to to votevote
for for the the first first time.time.

But But immediately immediately after after the the warwar, , women women generallygenerally
lost lost out out politically politically as as the the new new nation nation decided decided how how far far itit
would would extend extend the the rewards rewards of of citizenship. citizenship. In In many many states,states,

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>> >> Sybil Sybil Ludington,Ludington, shown shown herehere,, was was justjust
16 16 years years old old when when she she trtraveled aveled 40 40 milesmiles
from from her her homehome,, watching watching out out for for BritishBritish
soldiers soldiers and and loyloyalists, alists, in in ororder der to to warn warn thethe
rerevolutionary volutionary militia militia that that British British soldierssoldiers
werwere e burning burning the the totown wn of of ConcorConcord d in in 1777.1777.

120120 CH APT ER CH APT ER 66: : The The ReRevolutionvolution

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women women were were not not eligible eligible to to own own propertyproperty. . And, And, in in everyevery
other other state state besides besides New New JerseyJersey, , there there is is no no evidence evidence thatthat
women women were were ever ever offered offered the the vote. vote. In In 1807, 1807, even even NewNew
Jersey Jersey rescinded rescinded its its offer offer of of the the franchise.franchise.

SimilarlySimilarly, , men men often often confined confined women’women’s s role role to to thatthat
of of “republican “republican motherhood,” motherhood,” which which historians historians now now dede–
scribe scribe as as a a double-edged double-edged identity—one identity—one that that put put womenwomen
in in charge charge of of raising raising young young male male republicans republicans through through aa
demanding demanding path path of of education, education, religious religious adherence, adherence, andand
political political engagement engagement but but that that also also confined confined women’women’s s rolerole
to to familial familial relations relations outside outside the the realm realm of of direct direct interveninterven–
tion tion in in the the public public sphere.sphere.

66-3-3ff The The Impact Impact on on Religious Religious MinoritiesMinorities
Many Many historians historians have have pointed pointed to to the the Great Great AAwakeningwakening
of of the the 1730s 1730s and and 1740s 1740s as as laying laying part part of of the the foundation foundation
for for the the revolutionary revolutionary events events of of the the 1760s 1760s and and 1770s. 1770s. WithWith
its its emphasis emphasis on on personal personal religious religious experience experience rather rather thanthan
the the authority authority of of the the ministers, ministers, and and as as one one of of the the firstfirst
events events to to create create a a shared shared experience experience for for people people from from New New
England England to to the the southern southern colonies, colonies, some some have have viewed viewed thethe
Great Great AAwakening wakening as as an an early early form form of of revolutionary revolutionary activityactivity..
Colonists Colonists were were also also afraid afraid that, that, around around 1763, 1763, ParliamentParliament
was was planning planning to to establish establish a a bishop bishop of of the the Anglican Anglican ChurchChurch
for for America. America. They They feared feared that that any any such such appointment appointment wouldwould
extend extend Britain’Britain’s s official official church church to to the the colonies.colonies.

TTwo wo American American actions actions after after the the war war reflected reflected theirtheir
concerns concerns about about an an established established church: church: (1) (1) Most Most of of thethe
new new state state constitutions constitutions included included some some guarantee guarantee of of rere–
ligious ligious toleration, toleration, although although a a few few states states that that already already hadhad
an an official official tax-supported tax-supported church church (like (like Massachusetts)Massachusetts)
moved moved more more slowly slowly toward toward disestablishment disestablishment and and manymany
allowed allowed tolerance tolerance for for Christians Christians only; only; and and (2) (2) the the demodemo–
cratic cratic ideals ideals of of the the Revolution Revolution called called into into question question pubpub–
lic lic financial financial support support of of churches churches that that were were not not attendedattended
by by everyone.everyone.

The The best-known best-known representation representation of of these these ideasideas
came came in in 1786, 1786, when when the the Virginia Virginia legislature legislature passedpassed
a a Thomas Thomas Jefferson-drafted Jefferson-drafted bill bill that that called called for for thethe
disestablishment disestablishment of of the the Episcopal Episcopal Church. Church. Jefferson’Jefferson’ss
VVirginia irginia StatutStatute e on on Religious Religious FFreedomreedom was was one one ofof
the the accomplishments accomplishments that that Jefferson Jefferson himself himself was was mostmost
proud proud of. of. The The statute statute said said that that no no Virginians Virginians would would bebe
“compelled” “compelled” to to go go to to any any church church or or form form of of religiousreligious
worship worship against against their their will will and and that that all all Virginians Virginians werewere
free free to to profess profess their their own own opinion opinion “in “in matters matters of of relireli–
gion.” gion.” It It immediately immediately influenced influenced several several state state constituconstitu–
tions, tions, and and several several states states made made their their ratification ratification of of thethe
United United States States Constitution Constitution in in 1787 1787 contingent contingent upon upon anan
amendment amendment promising promising the the federal federal government government wouldwould

not not infringe infringe on on religious religious liberties liberties (in (in what what turned turned out out toto
be be the the First First Amendment).Amendment).

At At the the same same time, time, the the Revolution Revolution led led to to the the creation creation
of of several several divisions divisions of of American American churches, churches, such such asas
the the Methodist Methodist Episcopal Episcopal Church Church of of America America and and the the
Presbyterian Presbyterian Church Church of of the the United United States. States. TTwo wo “freedom “freedom
churches” churches” also also opened, opened, both both of of which which stressed stressed the the
brotherhood brotherhood of of man man and and the the freedom freedom of of conscience: conscience: thethe
Universalist Universalist Church Church (1779) (1779) and and the the Unitarian Unitarian ChurchChurch
(1785). (1785). Thus, Thus, not not only only did did the the Revolution Revolution inspire inspire lawslaws
mandating mandating the the separation separation of of church church and and state, state, but but it it alsoalso
encouraged encouraged the the creation creation of of two two major major antidogmatic antidogmatic sects.sects.

>L>LOOOOKINKING G AHAHEADEAD……

HH
istorians istorians have have long long weighed weighed the the question question ofof
how how revolutionary revolutionary the the RevolutionarRevolutionary y War War really really
was. was. At At a a basic basic levellevel, , the the war war set set the the patriots patriots
free free from from British British political political contrcontrol, ol, but but it it did did notnot

necessarily necessarily overturoverturn n economic economic or or gendergendered ed structures structures
that that had had been been in in place place long long beforbefore e the the warwar. . For For thethe
most most parpart, t, a a working working man man was was still still a a workworking ing man, man, aa
womanwoman’’s s role role was was largely largely confined confined to to the the domestic domestic
sphere, sphere, and and the the racial racial hierarhierarchy chy that that was was in in place place since since
BaconBacon’’s s RRebellion ebellion (if (if not not long long befbefore) ore) still still stoodstood. . But But thethe

TTable able 6.1 6.1 RevolutionarRevolutionary y War War ChrChronologyonology
17617633 End End of of salutarsalutar y y neglecneglectt

17177755 Local Local conflicconflicts ts escescalatalatee

January January 11777766 TTom om Paine’Paine’s s CommonCommon Sens Sensee

July July 11777766 DDeclaration eclaration of of IndependenceIndependence

DeceDecember mber 25, 25, 11777766 CrossingCrossing the the DelawareDelaware

September–September–
OcOctobtober er 11777777

BatBattle tle of of SaratogaSaratoga

17177788 FrancFrance e enters enters war war on on the the side side ofof
thethe United United States States

17177799 Britain Britain invades invades thethe South South

17178800 Inland Inland battles battles force force British British awayaway
from from supply supply lineliness

October October 11787811 YYorkorktown town and and American American vicvicttoror yy

VirVirginia ginia Statute Statute on on ReligReligious ious FrFreedom eedom Bill Bill passed passed in in 1786 1786
that that was was originally originally draf ted draf ted by by Thomas Thomas Jef f erson, Jef f erson, articulating articulating distrust distrust of of
an an established established state state church church and and the the value value of of rreligious eligious libertyliberty

121121Signif icance Signif icance of of the the WWarar

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war war provoked provoked the the question question of of how how far far rrepublicandemepublicandem–
ocracy ocracy would would exextendtend. . MMany any rrevolutionary evolutionary leaders leaders feared feared
that that too too much much freedom freedom might might lead lead to to chaos: chaos: if if evevereryoneyone
were were frfree, ee, who who would would ensurensure e order? order? On On the the other other handhand,,
too too little little freedom freedom might might trigger trigger a a second second revolution.revolution.

With With the the war war overover, , the the leaders leaders of of the the nenew w nationnation
confronted confronted yet yet another another daunting daunting task: task: forming forming a a newnew
government government that that embodied embodied the the revolutionary revolutionary spiritspirit
without without letting letting that that spirit spirit extend extend to to anarchyanarchy. . IIt t would would bebe
no no easy easy task.task.

SSTTUDYUDY
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READY READY TTO O STUDY?STUDY? IN IN THE THE BOOKBOOK, , YOU YOU CANCAN
❏ ❏ Rip Rip out out the the Chapter Chapter Review Review Card, Card, which which includes includes key key termsterms

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ONLINE ONLINE AAT T WWWWWW.CENGAGEBRAIN.COM, .CENGAGEBRAIN.COM, YOU YOU CAN:CAN:
❏ ❏ Collect Collect StudyBits StudyBits while while you you read read and and study study the the chapterchapter..
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❏ ❏ Learn Learn more more about about Lord Lord DunmorDunmore e and and read read his his proclamatproclamat
❏ ❏ Read Read Common Common Sense.Sense.
❏ ❏ View View a a film film about about the the drafting drafting of of the the Declaration Declaration ofof

Independence.Independence.

❏ ❏ Read Read the the DeclarDeclaration ation of of Independence.Independence.
❏ ❏ View View a a film film about about the the life life of of George George Washington.Washington.
❏ ❏ Read Read one one Quaker’Quaker’s s attempt attempt to to poinpoint t out out inconsistenciesinconsistencies

between between American American freedom freedom and and slaverslaveryy..

17177755 August:August: King King George George III III denouncdenounces es coloncolonists ists
asas reb rebelsels..
NovNovember:ember: Dunmore Dunmore prpromises omises sslalaves ves freedomfreedom
for for fighfighting ting alongalongside side BritiBritish.sh.

17177766 JanuaryJanuary: : ThomasThomas Paine’ Paine’ss pamphlet pamphlet CCommonommon
SeSensense cal calls ls for for iindependencndependence.e.
MarMarch:ch: Con Continentinental tal ArmArmy y forforces ces BrBritiitish sh to to eevacuvacu–
atate e Boston, Boston, eending nding eleveleven-month en-month siegesiege..
June June 77:: Committee Committee for for DeclaratDeclaration ion of of IndepenIndepen–
dencdence e forms, forms, with with JefJeffeferson rson as as drafdraftsman.tsman.
June June 28:28: C Continental ontinental Congress Congress debdebatatees s and and eeditsdits
Declaration Declaration of of IndeIndependencependence..

What What Else Else WWas as HappHappeningening

C H 6 C H 6 T I M ET I M E LL I N EI N E

122122 CHAPTER CHAPTER 66: : The The ReRe volutionvolution

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Editorial Editorial review review has has deemed deemed that that any any suppressed suppressed content content does does not not materially materially affect affect the the overall overall learning learning experience. experience. Cengage Cengage Learning Learning reserves reserves the the right right to to remove remove additional additional content content at at any any time time if if subsequent subsequent rights rights restrictions restrictions require require it.it.

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17177766 July July 2:2: Continental Continental Congress Congress unanimously unanimously
approapproves ves DeclaraDeclaration tion of of IndependencIndependence.e.
AuAugust–Decemgust–December:ber: C Continental ontinental Army Army esescapescapes
BritBritisish h in in NeNew w YYork.ork.
DecemberDecember 26 26:: G Generaleneral W Washington ashington dedefeafeatsts British British
with with ssurprise urprise momove ve in in TTrenrentonton, , New New JeJerseyrsey..

11777777SeptemberSeptember 1 19:9: P Patriotatriot victor victory y at at BatBattle tle of of
SarSaratoga atoga leads leads to to FFranco-American ranco-American AllianceAlliance..
SeptemberSeptember 26 26:: U Under nder GeGenerneral al Howe, Howe, BriBrititish sh ttake ake tthe he
new new capitcapital al of of PhiladePhiladelphia.lphia.
July July 4:4: The The UUninited ted SStattates es celebrcelebratates es its its fifirst rst birthdaybirthday. .
ShShips ips llined ined up up on on tthe he DelawDelawarare e RivRiver er didischarscharge ge thirteen thirteen
cancannon non sshothots s in in honor honor oof f the the ththirteen irteen ssttatates.es.
FFrranco-American anco-American AlliancAlliance e againagainst st BritiBritish sh expands expands the the
war war to to the the AtlanAtlantic.tic.
New New OrleanOrleans s busibusinesnessmsman an OlivOliver er PPollocollock k crcreateates es the the
$ $ symbsymbol.ol.

17177799 Under Under CCornwalornwallis, lis, BrBritiitish sh land land iin n SoutSouth h CarCaroliolinana
and and aadvance dvance quickquicklyly..

17178800 TTo o weweakaken en BrBritiitissh, h, papatriotriotts s dradraw w fightfighting ing ddeepereeper
inintto o South South CarCarolina.olina.

17178811 Cornwallis Cornwallis gives gives upup South South Carolina Carolina and and awaitawaitss
reinforcements reinforcements in in VVirginia.irginia.
OctobOctober er 119:9: Am American erican anand d FFrench rench forces forces traptrap
Cornwallis Cornwallis army army on on YYoorkrkttown own ppeninseninsula.ula.

17178822 John John JJayay, , BenjBenjamamin in FFrankliranklin, n, JohJohn n AAdamdams s travetravel l ttoo
PariParis s for for ppeeacace e talks.talks.

17178833 September:September: T Treatreaty y of of Paris Paris grgrants ants AmerAmerican ican
indeindependependencnce e and and ririghghtts s tto o the the WWest.est.

17178844 :: A A new new trtrade ade routroute e openopens s for for AmeAmericricanans s when when the the
Empress Empress ofof China China sa sailils s ffrrom om New New JersJersey ey araround ound CCape ape
Horn Horn in in SSouth outh AAmericmerica a to to ChiChina.na.

17178855 Revolution Revolution ininspispires res formformation ation of of freedom freedom churchurchesches
sucsuch h as as the the UnUnitaritariaians.ns.

17178877::The The first first UU.S.S. . penpennyny, , desidesigned gned by by BeBenjamnjamin in
FrFranklin,anklin, i is s minted.minted.
17178899:: TheThe F Frenchrench Revolutio Revolution n begins, begins, initiainitiating ting a a lonlong g
battle battle in in FFranrancce e ovover er “li“libertbertyy, , equalityequality, , and and frafrateternirnity.ty.””
17179900:: All All ststates ates bubut t SoutSouth h CaCarolrolina ina aand nd GeorGeorgia gia outlawoutlaw
slavslave e import import ffrrom om abroad.abroad.
The The cornerstcornerstonone e of of the the manmansion sion known known as as the the WhitWhite e
House House is is laid.laid.

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