Need an research paper on failed information technology project. Needs to be 5 pages. Please no plagiarism. iii. Interaction failure: The argument here is that if a system is heavily used it constitutes a success. if it is hardly used, or there are major problems with using the system then it constitutes a failure.
A failed IT project is characterized primarily by incomplete requirements, lack of user involvement, lack of resources, unrealistic expectations, lack of executive support, changing requirements and specifications, lack of planning, lack of utilization, lack of IT management, and technology illiteracy.
Even if IT projects have a definable lifecycle, their products or results can never be static. When an IT application is developed and implemented, it has to have the scope to be enhanced, extended, and adapted to newer platforms. An IT project can therefore be deemed to be a failure if the solution it delivers lacks growth and evolutionary capabilities.
IT projects are not technical goal-oriented per se. IT projects are primarily not launched to achieve any outstanding piece of IT engineering, they have to have business value. A delayed project that goes way above the budget could turn out to be a profitable investment if it facilitates business, whereas a project completed on time, within budget, and with the specified functionalities could be considered a bad investment if it does not impact the business positively. An IT project could therefore also fail due to a lack of business sense. The overall project profitability is a much more relevant success criterion than strict adherence to the initial budget.
IT projects have to adapt and merge with their organizational environment. An IT application that is not an intrinsic part of its business environment will fail to meet expectations. IT projects have to keep the requirements of end-users in mind. The adaptation process has to be mutual: an organization has to adapt itself to host a new and comprehensive IT application, and the IT application also has to be designed to meet the needs and capabilities of the organization for which it is developed. An IT project can therefore also fail due to a lack of integration with its business environment.