1. “Fallacies and Errors in Sound Reasoning” Please respond to the following:
- There are several types of fallacies used in advertising. Please provide two (2) different examples that illustrate the use of the equivocation, false authority, ad hominem, appeal to ignorance, or bandwagon fallacies. You may only use one type of fallacy per example.
- Describe the fallacy used in each selected advertisement.
- Why do you think the advertisers used that fallacy in the ad?
- Was the fallacy used effectively? Explain your thinking.
- If you were an advertiser, what would you have done differently to better use the fallacy?
2. “Identifying Misleading Information in an Argument” Please respond to the following:
- Research an article that uses statistics to make its conclusion. Sample articles:
- “Even With Affirmative Action, Blacks and Hispanics Are More Underrepresented at Top Colleges Than 35 Years Ago”, located at https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/08/24/us/affirmative-action.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&clickSource=story-heading&module=photo-spot-region®ion=top-news&WT.nav=top-news
- “U.S. State Department Expands Travel Warnings for Mexico’s Beachside Tourist Meccas”, located at http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/08/23/545528706/state-department-expands-travel-warnings-for-mexico-s-beachside-tourist-meccas
- “How Unemployment and Depression Fit Together”, located at https://www.forbes.com/sites/susanadams/2014/06/09/how-unemployment-and-depression-fit-together/#365488417b70
- What is the premise and conclusion of the argument based on statistics?
- Determine whether or not the argument uses any deceptive statistics.
- Give your opinion on whether or not the argument has persuaded you. Explain why or why not.
- Determine the primary ways in which statistics or authority are used in your current position in developing persuasive arguments, and provide examples of such use.
3. “Identifying Truth or Fiction” Please respond to the following:
- The video clip ‘The Baloney Detection Kit’ in the Webtext this week discusses the ways an effective critical thinker assesses claims made by others.
- Examine some key reasons why people might seem attracted to pseudoscience-type claims.
- Describe at least two (2) such claims that you have heard people make, and analyze the main reasons why such claims do or do not meet rigorous scientific methodology standards.
- Determine at least two (2) ways in which the material discussed this week has changed your own thinking.
4. “Problem Solving Interview Question” Please respond to the following:
- Imagine you are interviewing for a job you really want.
- The interviewer asks you the following question: “Explain a specific example in which you used critical thinking/problem solving strategies to solve a problem in the real world.”
- What is your answer to the question?
- Choose one classmate’s own response to the interviewer’s question. If you are a job coach, what suggestions would you make to maximize his or her answer to the interview question?
5. “The Relationship Between Language and Thinking” Please respond to the following:
- Examine whether or not it is possible to think without using language.
- Argue for or against the ways a person might enact “languageless” thinking.
- If you believe it is not possible, describe the major problems with languageless thinking.
6. “Ethics and Trust in Critical Thinking Decisions” Please respond to the following:
- Imagine you are seeking information on a new car that you are thinking of buying. Determine the level of trust that you would place in information provided by the following: a salesman at the car lot, the dealer’s Website, social media (i.e. Facebook), an associate from work, and finally a close friend. Discuss the key factors involved in assessing the amount of trust that you put into each.
- If you were in a position to persuade another person, explain whether or not you would slant information in such a way as to make your point seem more credible if you sincerely believed that your position was correct. Discuss the primary ethical dilemmas that this scenario could cause for both you and the person whom you are trying to persuade.