The requirement for this Assignment is to build upon the information presented in the first requirement (ATTACHED). Using the references that has already located. You are to prepare a 15 slides PowerPoint presentation, The relationship between properly-planned student assessments and student outcomes intended to address the harmonious relationship that should exist between student assignments and desired student learning outcomes. A thorough PowerPoint presentation is expected to include the use of images, and a warm choice of font. In-text citation should be cited on each slide that it is used , and each slide must have speaker’s notes and also a full reference list should be at the conclusion (last slides) In-text citation style to reference journal articles (by author’s last name and year) on specific slides (when the reference is used) and include a complete reference list at the conclusion of the presentation.
APA writing style should be followed for reference format. This style manual may be accessed through the Purdue Online Writing Lab, APA website.
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1
Course Assessment 14 Weeks
February 21, 2021
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 2
Balfanz, R., DePaoli, J., Atwell, M., & Bridgeland, J. (2018). Great American High School
Campaign: Reforming the Nation’s Remaining Low-Performing High Schools. Civic
Educators at underperforming high schools must examine their behaviors and implement
a reform strategy based on current evidence. This strategy should involve setting minimum
entrance criteria for first-year students, developing an intercession suite for difficult scholars,
creating a safe and secure atmosphere for students, and ensuring that instructors are equipped to
teach their content. At school, a co-educational civic should be developed. Each of these
scheduling alternatives has its own set of considerations because of these scheduling
possibilities. Three school-wide reform programs that have attracted attention.
binti Si-Rajab, S. (2020). The level of instructional leadership practices among principals of
National Religious Secondary School in Malaysia.
Despite universal agreement on the significance of instructional leadership, the author
contends that there is less agreement on what defines instructional leadership. Classroom
supervision and instructional leadership, in some people’s perspectives, go hand in hand. The
authors advocate for a different approach to educational leadership, emphasizing the importance
of a varied range of administrative practices and resource distribution approaches. This approach
to instructional development emphasizes organizational management rather than teaching and
learning. Despite the importance of good classroom education, the authors conclude that the
presence of a school principal in the classroom has only a minor impact on teaching quality.
School leaders have a significant impact on student learning by hiring and allocating teachers to
classes, keeping teachers, and providing opportunities for teachers to grow and learn. They are
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 3
all about changing the way things are done to improve educational outcomes. Managers who are
skilled in hiring and retaining employees, allocating funds, and ensuring a healthy work and
learning environment are referred to as strong managers in the workplace. When discussing
instructional leadership, they warn against relying solely on classroom instruction.
Kame’enui, E. J. (2021). Ode to Zig (and the Bard): In Support of an incomplete logical-
empirical model of direct instruction. Perspectives on Behavior Science, 44(2), 285-305.
The article includes an overview of twenty-four whole-school reform projects, as well as
an independent assessment of each one. The author has presented various models for assessment
of educational outcomes for learners in high school. The author has developed a well-structured
scheme for conducting the assessment activities. Each model was assessed based on information
on learner conclusions, the asset of the exploration basis, the availability of support services, and
the program’s expenses.
Kanaany, M., Hasani, R., & Mohamadi, M. (2021). A Systematic Review of Identifying Aspects
and Indicators of Improving Learning Culture Model at Schools. Journal of New
Approaches in Educational Administration, 12(3), 15-1.
The “culture” of an educational institution is characterized as a set of deeply held ideas,
practices, ideals, and myths about the school, all of which are famously difficult to change.
Schools with a welcoming climate may be extremely different from those with a poisonous one.
Participation in decision-making, preservation of basics, and open communication are only a few
of the healthy cultural norms underlined by the author, who also emphasized cooperation, trust,
honesty, practical assistance, gratitude and recognition, compassion, celebration, and humor. The
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 4
instructional leader’s responsibility is to support the faculty in regularly assessing the school’s
cultural norms. This technique entails resolving the unaddressed before choosing whether to
keep, re-examine, or delete practices or behaviors based on their influence on student learning.
Education is viewed as a sort of punishment in toxic communities. It is critical for school
administrators to be ready to change aspects of the school’s culture so that they support rather
than obstruct the school’s goals. The school administration identified a learning community in
which each member is accountable for the well-being of others and the community as a major
Lewis, K. R. (2016, August 08). Standardized testing hits a nerve. Retrieved February 5, 2022,
In recent years, the validity of standardized examinations has been called into question.
When No Child Left Behind was implemented in 2008, the goal was to level the playing field for
students of all races and socioeconomic levels. The federal government has promised funds, but
if no progress is achieved, that cash may be jeopardized. The spiraling core curriculum had a
flaw since not all schools used the same way. When this issue was being debated, many parents,
children, and teachers’ unions backed the “opt out of testing” campaign. Lewis has received
multiple accolades as a journalist for his work on education. Harvard University awarded her a
bachelor’s degree in physics. Her piece was included in one of the world’s most widely read
newspapers, USA Today. USA Today was created in 1982, while USAToday.com was launched
in 1995 as an extension of that newspaper. The article supports its thesis statement by illustrating
how high-stakes tests constrain students’ learning and instructors’ teaching to the test.
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 5
McKim, C. A., Hvidston, D., & Hickman, B. J. (2019). An analysis of superintendent and
principal perceptions regarding the supervision and evaluation of principals. Journal of
Educational Supervision, 2(2), 53.
This study investigated principal assessment tools and professional standards for heads in
school divisions in a using quantitative and qualitative content analysis approaches to determine
the levels of emphasis placed on instructional leadership and management qualities anticipated of
school heads. Determine whether the principal assessment tools comply with state and certified
regulations. School districts place a high importance on school administrators’ abilities to oversee
instruction while simultaneously managing the organization and communicating with the local
community, according to the findings. This means that currently of accountability, principals
must manage a rising number of responsibilities, making the position more onerous. According
to the findings of this study, consistent performance requirements were observed in principal
evaluation tools throughout school divisions.
Mulyani, H., Meirawan, D., & Rahmadani, A. (2020). INCREASING SCHOOL
EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH PRINCIPALS’LEADERSHIP AND
TEACHERS’TEACHING PERFORMANCE, IS IT POSSIBLE. Journal Cakrawala
Pendidikan, 39(2), 279-292. https://journal.uny.ac.id/index.php/cp/article/view/28864
Over the course of several school days, researchers observed and documented the
activities of Miami-Dade County public school officials for five minutes at a time. Participants in
the study wanted to see if there was a link between the amount of time principals spent on
specific activities and the performance of their schools. There is a correlation between how much
time students spend on academics and how they feel about their teachers and parents.
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 6
Vujić, D., Novaković, S., Maksimović, M., & Karabašević, D. (2019). The role of the leader in
empowering and supporting employees towards sustainable development. Vojno
delo, 71(5), 117-125. http://scindeks.ceon.rs/article.aspx?artid=0042-84261905117V
A five-year study in New York and Canada looked at the long-term feasibility of
educational reform. In the past, it has been difficult to sustain educational breakthroughs that
assist pupils learn over extended periods of time. The move from the testing phase of current
ideas and practices to the period of change institutionalization, when new practices are integrated
into teachers’ repertoires, is a significant difficulty. According to the authors, maintainability and
sustainability were distinguished, with the latter referring to long-term transformation that
benefits all students and is not dependent on a single school leader or external resources. It is
critical to look for five vital features in educational transformation: • Long-term improvement; •
Long-term improvement for an extended period; and • Long-term improvement for an extended
You must prioritize learning in all that you do. The primary role of the school leader is to
keep learning going, which best performed with the help of others. In a web of distributed
leadership, people, structures, and cultures are all interconnected. This type of organic activity
requires connectivity and interrelationships. The relevance of long-term leadership outweighs the
importance of a single leader. Rather than relying just on a few heroes, a culture of shared
leadership and accountability should be established in the hearts and minds of all. Leadership in
a school division may be horizontal among leaders, but it should become vertical at the school
level. Not just a few school leaders, but the entire school community, should be dedicated to a
distributed leadership culture.