Policy p

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Childhood Education Senior Class – Policy P: 

  1. Please note: Must cite/discuss the UN Children’s Rights Convention document in the conclusion

a summary of the un convention
on the rights of the child

article 1 (definition of the child)
Everyone under the age of 18 has all the
rights in the Convention.

article 2 (non-discrimination)
The Convention applies to every child
without discrimination, whatever their
ethnicity, gender, religion, language,
abilities or any other status, whatever
they think or say, whatever their family

article 3 (best interests of the child)
The best interests of the child must be a
top priority in all decisions and actions that
affect children.

article 4 (implementation of
the Convention)
Governments must do all they can to make
sure every child can enjoy their rights by
creating systems and passing laws that
promote and protect children’s rights.

article 5 (parental guidance and a
child’s evolving capacities)
Governments must respect the rights and
responsibilities of parents and carers to
provide guidance and direction to their
child as they grow up, so that they fully
enjoy their rights. This must be done in a
way that recognises the child’s increasing
capacity to make their own choices.

article 6 (life, survival and development)
Every child has the right to life.
Governments must do all they can to
ensure that children survive and develop to
their full potential.

article 7 (birth registration, name,
nationality, care)
Every child has the right to be registered at
birth, to have a name and nationality, and,
as far as possible, to know and be cared
for by their parents.

article 8 (protection and preservation
of identity)
Every child has the right to an identity.
Governments must respect and protect
that right, and prevent the child’s name,
nationality or family relationships from
being changed unlawfully.

article 9 (separation from parents)
Children must not be separated from their
parents against their will unless it is in their
best interests (for example, if a parent is
hurting or neglecting a child). Children
whose parents have separated have the
right to stay in contact with both parents,
unless this could cause them harm.

article 10 (family reunification)
Governments must respond quickly and
sympathetically if a child or their parents
apply to live together in the same country.
If a child’s parents live apart in different
countries, the child has the right to visit
and keep in contact with both of them.

article 11 (abduction and non-return
of children)
Governments must do everything they can
to stop children being taken out of their
own country illegally by their parents or
other relatives, or being prevented from
returning home.

article 12 (respect for the views
of the child)
Every child has the right to express their
views, feelings and wishes in all matters
affecting them, and to have their views
considered and taken seriously. This right
applies at all times, for example during
immigration proceedings, housing decisions
or the child’s day-to-day home life.

article 13 (freedom of expression)
Every child must be free to express their
thoughts and opinions and to access all
kinds of information, as long as it is within
the law.

article 14 (freedom of thought,
belief and religion)
Every child has the right to think and
believe what they choose and also to
practise their religion, as long as they are
not stopping other people from enjoying
their rights. Governments must respect
the rights and responsibilities of parents to
guide their child as they grow up.

article 15 (freedom of association)
Every child has the right to meet with
other children and to join groups and
organisations, as long as this does not stop
other people from enjoying their rights.

article 16 (right to privacy)
Every child has the right to privacy. The law
should protect the child’s private, family
and home life, including protecting children
from unlawful attacks that harm their

article 17 (access to information
from the media)
Every child has the right to reliable
information from a variety of sources,
and governments should encourage the
media to provide information that children
can understand. Governments must help
protect children from materials that could
harm them.

article 18 (parental responsibilities
and state assistance)
Both parents share responsibility for
bringing up their child and should always
consider what is best for the child.
Governments must support parents by
creating support services for children and
giving parents the help they need to raise
their children.

article 19 (protection from violence,
abuse and neglect)
Governments must do all they can to
ensure that children are protected from all
forms of violence, abuse, neglect and bad
treatment by their parents or anyone else
who looks after them.

article 20 (children unable to live
with their family)
If a child cannot be looked after by
their immediate family, the government
must give them special protection and
assistance. This includes making sure
the child is provided with alternative care
that is continuous and respects the child’s
culture, language and religion.

article 21 (adoption)
Governments must oversee the process of
adoption to make sure it is safe, lawful and
that it prioritises children’s best interests.
Children should only be adopted outside of
their country if they cannot be placed with
a family in their own country.

article 22 (refugee children)
If a child is seeking refuge or has refugee
status, governments must provide them
with appropriate protection and assistance
to help them enjoy all the rights in the
Convention. Governments must help
refugee children who are separated from
their parents to be reunited with them.

article 23 (children with a disability)
A child with a disability has the right to live
a full and decent life with dignity and, as far
as possible, independence and to play an
active part in the community. Governments
must do all they can to support disabled
children and their families.

article 24 (health and health services)
Every child has the right to the best
possible health. Governments must
provide good quality health care, clean
water, nutritious food, and a clean
environment and education on health
and well-being so that children can stay
healthy. Richer countries must help poorer
countries achieve this.

article 25 (review of treatment in care)
If a child has been placed away from
home for the purpose of care or
protection (for example, with a foster
family or in hospital), they have the right
to a regular review of their treatment,
the way they are cared for and their
wider circumstances.

article 26 (social security)
Every child has the right to benefit from
social security. Governments must
provide social security, including financial
support and other benefits, to families in
need of assistance.

article 27 (adequate standard of living)
Every child has the right to a standard of
living that is good enough to meet their
physical and social needs and support
their development. Governments must
help families who cannot afford to
provide this.

article 28 (right to education)
Every child has the right to an education.
Primary education must be free and
different forms of secondary education
must be available to every child. Discipline
in schools must respect children’s dignity
and their rights. Richer countries must help
poorer countries achieve this.

article 29 (goals of education)
Education must develop every child’s
personality, talents and abilities to the
full. It must encourage the child’s respect
for human rights, as well as respect
for their parents, their own and other
cultures, and the environment.

article 30 (children from minority
or indigenous groups)
Every child has the right to learn and
use the language, customs and religion
of their family, whether or not these are
shared by the majority of the people in
the country where they live.

article 31 (leisure, play and culture)
Every child has the right to relax, play and
take part in a wide range of cultural and
artistic activities.

article 32 (child labour)
Governments must protect children from
economic exploitation and work that is
dangerous or might harm their health,
development or education. Governments
must set a minimum age for children to
work and ensure that work conditions
are safe and appropriate.

article 33 (drug abuse)
Governments must protect children from
the illegal use of drugs and from being
involved in the production or distribution
of drugs.

article 34 (sexual exploitation)
Governments must protect children from
all forms of sexual abuse and exploitation.

article 35 (abduction, sale
and trafficking)
Governments must protect children from
being abducted, sold or moved illegally
to a different place in or outside their
country for the purpose of exploitation.

article 36 (other forms of exploitation)
Governments must protect children
from all other forms of exploitation, for
example the exploitation of children for
political activities, by the media or for
medical research.

article 37 (inhumane treatment
and detention)
Children must not be tortured,
sentenced to the death penalty or suffer
other cruel or degrading treatment
or punishment. Children should be
arrested, detained or imprisoned only
as a last resort and for the shortest time
possible. They must be treated with
respect and care, and be able to keep in
contact with their family. Children must
not be put in prison with adults.

article 38 (war and armed conflicts)
Governments must not allow children
under the age of 15 to take part in war
or join the armed forces. Governments
must do everything they can to protect
and care for children affected by war and
armed conflicts.

article 39 (recovery from trauma
and reintegration)
Children who have experienced neglect,
abuse, exploitation, torture or who are
victims of war must receive special
support to help them recover their health,
dignity, self-respect and social life.

article 40 (juvenile justice)
A child accused or guilty of breaking
the law must be treated with dignity
and respect. They have the right to legal
assistance and a fair trial that takes
account of their age. Governments must
set a minimum age for children to be
tried in a criminal court and manage a
justice system that enables children who
have been in conflict with the law to
reintegrate into society.

article 41 (respect for higher
national standards)
If a country has laws and standards that
go further than the present Convention,
then the country must keep these laws.

article 42 (knowledge of rights)
Governments must actively work to
make sure children and adults know
about the Convention.

The Convention has 54 articles in total.
Articles 43–54 are about how adults
and governments must work together to
make sure all children can enjoy all their
rights, including:

article 45
Unicef can provide expert advice and
assistance on children’s rights.

optional protocols
There are three agreements, called
Optional Protocols, that strengthen the
Convention and add further unique
rights for children. They are optional
because governments that ratify the
Convention can decide whether or not
to sign up to these Optional Protocols.
They are: the Optional Protocol on the
sale of children, child prostitution and
child pornography, the Optional Protocol
on the involvement of children in armed
conflict and the Optional Protocol on
a complaints mechanism for children
(called Communications Procedure).

For more information go to

ChAD 195 Senior Seminar

Policy Paper Instructions

Total Points for the Paper = 75

Reminders: Submit the paper to Canvas and bring a blank copy of the rubric to class on the due date. If you have any questions, problems, or concerns about the paper, you should:

Make an appointment to talk with me

Send me an email/Contact me on Canvas

Call me or see me before/after class

The paper must be at least 12 pages of text (title page, reference pages do not count) but no longer than 16 pages of text . The paper requires a minimum of 15 references (see below). Both in-text and full references should be in correct APA format. Use a reasonable 12-point font (Times, Times new Roman, Palatino) and one-inch margins. An Abstract and cover page are not required.

Format/Content of Written Policy Paper

Step 1 – Overview of the assignment:

Review current educational issues facing children in CA today. Decide on the issue that is most important or interesting to you and narrow down the topic to a reasonable scope. You will be preparing a document to take (hypothetically) to the Santa Clara County Board of Ediucation to implement in the following school year.

Step 2 – Paper Preparation

* After you have chosen a topic, find your references. You must have at least:

12 peer-reviewed research articles

2 policy references + 1 scholarly reference that guides the critical analysis of the existing


2 statistics references (not from an article) from a credible web-site (UN, CDC, WHO, etc.)

Cite/discuss the UN Children’s Right’s Convention (see Canvas)

* Prepare and submit the Paper Proposal

* Prepare and submit the Paper Outline

Step 3 – Write the Final Draft

Introduction to Paper

Begin with an introductory paragraph that lays out the format and direction of the entire paper

Description of the educational issue/problem the policy will address (cite from your lit review)

Discussion of the importance of the topic in the context of child development research – provide

one or two sample results/citations and a sample statistic that shows the extent of the problem

Brief description of the policy you are proposing

Specific and concrete over-view of the paper content – “This paper will …..”

The introduction should not exceed 1 page.

Background/Statistics Related to Why this Policy is Necessary:

You will need to use background statistics to help you build your case for why this policy is necessary. That is, describe what we know about children, families, and communities that is directly relevant to your your education relevant policy. For example, if you were looking at “achievement gaps in English Language Learners” you will want statistics on the percent of children who are ELL, the percent of children who are ELL who are retained a grade, placed in special education, etc. Make sure that your statistics come from credible sources. Examples of credible sources include: The United Nations (UN/UNICEF), The Center For Disease Control (CDC), any federal, state or local governmental agency (look for a .gov), Kids Count, and Trends in Well-Being of America’s Children and Youth.

Research Based Rationale for the Policy:

Find and use child development research (broadly defined) that presents data showing that the elements of the policy are an effective way to improve children’s education. (For example, an article showing that children who eat breakfast are more likely to pay attention in class; children who get enough sleep have fewer academic difficulties). You may also want to present research showing that children who do not experience the elements of the policy are at higher risk for negative outcomes (e.g., children who do not have access to arts education are more likely to drop-out of high school). In the lit review you will need to review a minimum of 12 peer-reviewed, empirical articles. The review should be integrated, with multiple related articles discussed in a paragraph, rather than a list (i.e., one article per paragraph). Make sure you describe the goals, subjects, and specific/relevant results for each study. The section should be divided into sub-sections (theme/content based). At the end of each section, provide a summary of key points and indicate how and why those key points support/justify/provide evidence for the policy you are proposing.

Review of Existing Policy

For this section you will want to review existing federal, state, and county education policies that are relevant to your topic. Provide a critical analysis of at least two existing, relevant policies; that is discuss their strengths and weaknesses and indicate how your policy will draw on those strengths and address those weaknesses – support this disucssion with results from the lit review you provided in the previous section. You will need to cite the actual policies and at least one scholarly paper that discusses policy relevant to your topic and helps show the context or background or rationale for these policies. A strong paper will provide a review of more than one scholarly work that discusses relevant policies.

Detailed Components of the Proposed Policy:

Describe in detail what you are proposing to do. That is, don’t just say “have green places for plants and

animals”. Propose a specific way of implementing the policy at the school, district, or county level. For example, “Create vegetable and fruit gardens on all elementary school campuses. Teachers will supervise student gardeners and will create at least one garden-based environmental/earth studies science lesson plan per week”. Provide lots of details about what you are proposing, (who, what, how, where, when) and justify the inclusion of these elementse by referring back to the research and statistics you have already reviewed. For example: “Green (2020) found that children who attend schools with fruit/vegetable gardens are more physically fit, healthier, and have greater understanding of a healthy diet. Thus, each school will be required to create fruit and vegetable gardens.” The policy section must include a set of clearly articulated outcome goals (e.g.,Children will increase their consumption of fruits and vegetables. Children will also increase their knowledge of environmental science”). The goals should also be derived from the statistics and research reviewed in previous sections.

Program Evaluation:

Describe, in detail, how you will (1) evaluate the extent to which the policy has been implemented correctly (process) and (2) evaluate the impact this initiative has on children (outcomes). Thus, the evaluation should be linked to both process (the policy components, policy implementation) and outcomes (policy goals). For example, using the fruit/vegetable garden example, process evaluation would involve a plan to ensure that each school has a gardem, that students are the gardeners, and that teachers have weekly garden-based science lessons. Again, using the using the fruit/vegetable garden example, outcome evaluation would involve a plan to test the extent to which children have increased their consumption of fruits and vegetables and the extent to which they have improved their understanding of environmental science concepts for their grade. The following web-site can help you with developing and evaluation plan: Program Evaluation 101.


Briefly summarize key points from the background statistics, existing policy, and research review. Then summarize main points from your policy proposal. Indicate how this policy fits in the bigger picture of improving children’s well-being (long-term outcomes) by, by improving their educational experiences. Finish by discussing how your policy proposal will will promote children’s rights in a more general sense (refer to the UN document on the Children’s Rights).

How to Write a Better Paper

Questions to Ask Yourself as You Construct the Policy Paper

Paul, R. & Elder, L. (2004). The miniature guide to critical thinking: Concepts and tools.

Dillon Bdeach, CA: The Foundation for Critical Thinking

1. Clarity: Without clarity, a reader cannot judge accuracy or relevance.

An example of an unclear thesis statement: “What can be done about the education system in

America?” What does the author consider a ‘problem’? A clearer statement would be:

“What can educators do to ensure that students learn the skills and abilities which help them function

successfully on the job and in daily life?”

A. Can I elaborate further?

B. Can I provide an example?

C. Can I illustrate what I mean?

2. Accuracy: Statements may be clear, but not accurate. For example: “Most overweight cats weigh

over 300 pounds.” This is where referencing and using scientific data is important.

A. How can we check that fact?

B. How can we find out if it is true?

C. How can we verify or test that?

3. Precision: Statements can be clear and accurate but not precise. Sometimes, precision makes a big

difference. For example: “Jack is overweight”. (Is he 500 pounds or 5 pounds overweight?)

A. Can I be more specific

B. Can I provide more relevant details?

C. Can I be more exact?

4. Relevance: How is the information connected to the question, thesis or topic? Statements can be

clear, accurate, and precise but not relevant. For example: {In a paper on education reform} “To meet

their emotional connectedness needs, research has shown that teachers often have pets, especially

small dogs such as Pugs and Chows or indoor short-hair domestic cats (ASPCA, 2007).”

A. How does this relate to the problem?

B. How does this bear on the problem?

C. How does that help with the issue?

5. Depth: Statements may be clear, accurate, precise, and relevant but lack depth and are superficial

because they over-generalize and fail to acknowledge the complexities of an issue. An example is the

anti-drug use campaign slogan “Just Say No”.

A. What factors make this a difficult problem?

B. What are some of the complexities of the problem?

C. What are some of the difficulties we need to deal with?

6. Breadth: Statements may be clear, accurate, precise, relevant, and deep, but lack breadth (i.e., they are

one sided). An example would be an explanation of an issue from either the liberal or conservative

perspective. The explanation may thorough and deep, but it only presents one side of the story and,

thus, may omit important information.

A. Do I need to look at this from another perspective?

B. Do I need to consider another point of view?

C. Do I need to look at this in other ways?

(Continues on the next page)

7. Writing Quality: Avoid basic writing errors that obscure your points and are awkward to read. These


A. Using more than two direct quotes

B. Citing the literature review in an article rather than the results of the study (i.e., using “cited


C. Using the name of the article in the text – just cite by author(s) last name(s) and year

D. Using phrases like “The authors, Smith and Greene, they found that” (see clarity above)

E. Writing the literature review like a list (e.g., “The next article is…”)

8. Logic: When we think, we bring a variety of thought together into some kind of order. When the

combination of thoughts is mutually supportive, connected, and coherent it is “logical”. When that

combination is not mutually supportive, disconnected, contradictory, then it does not “make sense” or

is “not logical”.

A. Does this make sense as a whole?

B. Does the first paragraph fit with the rest of the paragraphs?

C. Does what I say follow from the evidence?

9. Significance: Does this issue really matter?

A. Is this the most important problem to consider?

B. Is this the central idea to focus on?

C. Have I focused on the most important facts?

10. Have I included all the required paper elements?

Policy Paper

Policy Paper Preparation Assignment

This is the first of two assignments designed to get you started on, and prepared for, the policy term paper. The proposal is worth 30 points.

Policy Paper Proposal

In this assignment, you will present a brief proposal for your policy paper and how you will

address major required elements of the policy paper. All required desciprions in A-E must be paraphrased in your own words. The assignment, which should be at least two pages, will include:

A Specific Topic: describe what aspect of public education you would like to improve throug policy (e.g., greener schools, arts curriculum., professional development training for teachers with respect to technology; bilingual education; etc.)

1. The topic should be clear, concise, and specifc (e.g., improve academic achievement is a broad, general statement; PE is vague)

2. ________/2

B. A 3- to 5-sentence summary of the policy you will propose

1. The summary should describe: (a) the problem to be addressed (e.g., children suffer academically when funding for the arts are cut); (b) the focus of the policy (e.g., the require schools to use the arts to teach different subjects such that students receive arts education across the curriculum; and (c) the goals you want to achieve with the policy (e.g., infusing the arts throughout the curriclum will increase student engagement, improve achievement in math, literacy, and science, and enhance students creativity)

2. ________/3

The next two components of the paper require you to use information literacy skills; specifically you will need to find credible and reliable sources for a scholarly/academic audidence. To help prepare you, watch the following video but don’t submit this information – it is background information:

1. Authority is constructed and contextual: https://researchbysubject.bucknell.edu/framework/auth

As you search for sources for statistics (C ) and existing policies (D) you will need to examine the following information in mind about the web sources you are looking for: Authority, Accuracy/Quality, Coverage, Credibility, Currency, Objectivity, Purpose, Relevance, and Reliability.

C. A 2- to 3-sentence description of the kinds statistics you will can use to show the policy you propose is needed.

1. Statistics can show data about child outcomes that are suboptimal (e.g., achievement, behavioral problems/referrals, college readiness); program gaps (e.g., percent of schools without X curriculum or Y type of personnel); resource gaps (e.g., percent of schools without access to science labs or ipads) or suboptimal practices (e.g., direct instruction, out-of-school suspensions), or something unique to your policy

2. The description should incude an explanation of why these statistics show a need for your policy.

3. Two examples of (a) a source of information for the statistics (e.g., https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/index.asp); and (b) a sample statistic (e.g., in 2015, 68.9% of schools in the US reported some form of violent incident on the school grounds)

4. ________/4

D. List two existing policies and a reference or link for the policies

1. Describe the policy in 2 sentences (e.g., FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act) is a federal law that protects the privacy of students’ educational records: https://studentprivacy.ed.gov).

2. In one or two sentences describe potential strengths and weaknesses with the existing policy[footnoteRef:1] (e.g., schools can disclose without parent/student consent educational records to state and local authorities associated with the juvenile justice system; a strength is that students and parents can request corrections be made to the record if they believe it is inaccurate). [1: In the actual paper you will use research and statistics to provide evidence for why these are problems within existing policy, for the proposal think critically and draw on your knowledge from class materials to look at the strengths and weaknesses in existing policy.]

3. ________/6

As you prepare to search for research articles for part (E), watch the following video but don’t submit this information – it is background information:

Searching as strategic exploration: https://researchbysubject.bucknell.edu/framework/explor

You will want to articulate and clarify your information need. You may find the following steps useful:

1. Based on your topic, write a basic research question. (e.g. What is the effect of assigning homework on children’s achievement and motivation?)

2. Use your research question to create a brief list of search terms, synonyms, and related words that can be used to search for information. (e.g. homework, elementary school, achievement, academic success, motivation.)

E. Provide an annotated bibliography for 6 (six) peer-reviewed empirical research studies (published in the last 10 years) which demonstrate (1) why the lack of the proposed policy leads to negative outcomes for students and/or (2) why having the proposed policy would be beneficial.

1. Provide the full APA formatted reference

2. Describe the study goals/hypotheses

3. Describe the participants

4. Describe the indpendent (predictor) and dependent (outcome) variables(measures)[footnoteRef:2] [2: You won’t report this in the final paper, but this will help you flesh out the key results in the study]

5. Describe, accurately and concisely, the results that are directly relevant (i.e., support) your policy proposal

6. Describe how and why these results show the need for your proposed policy

7. ________/15

I Intro
A Brief statement of the education-relevant issue/problem
B Why it is the topic important
1 sample stat and citation
2 sample result and citation
C Brief description of the policy proposed to address the issue/problem
D over-view of what the paper will do and cover

II Stats that show the current state with respect to your policy/need for the policy
A Statistics
1 stat1 (citation)
2 stat2 (citation)
3 stat3 (citation)
4 etc.
B explanation of how the stats show a need for the policy

III Existing Policy Review
A Policy 1 + URL/citation

1. Description
2. Strengths (support with citations from the lit review)
3. Weaknesses (support with citations from the lit review)

B Policy 2 + URL/citation
1. Description
2. Strengths (support with citations from the lit review)
3. Weaknesses (support with citations from the lit review)

C summary of policies; key points; and discussion of scholarly article addressing
the issues related to these policies (this article is separate from the lit review)

IV Lit Review: 12 research articles; grouped into subsections of related articles (the number of
articles in each subtopic will vary but you need at least two); each article lists, goals,
subjects and results; at the end of subsections you will summarize key findings and explain
how these finding support your policy – do NOT do this article by article
A Subtopic 1
Article 1
Article 2
Article 3
Subtopic 1 Summary
B Subtopic 2
Article 4
Article 5
Article 6

Subtopic 2 Summary
C Subtopic 3
Article 7
Article 8
Article 9
Subtopic 3 Summary
D Subtopic 4
Article 10
Article 11
Article 12
Subtopic 1 Summary

V Policy Proposal
A detailed proposal (components of the policy linked to the stats (II), the lit review

(III), and existing policy (IV) – this answers who, what, where, when, and how; the
why is selected results, stats, or policies from sections II, III, and IV

B set of specific, concrete, evidence-based goals you want the policy to achieve

VII Evaluation
A process (how you will test that the components of the policy were implemented

B outcomes – how you will test that the goals were achieved
1 goal 1
2 goal 2
3 goal 3

VIII Conclusion
A summary of key points (stats, prior policies, lit review)
B summary of policy proposal and how this will promote child well-being
in a broad sense

C how the policy promotes children’s rights – citing specific articles from the
Children’s Rights Convention (see the article posted on the assignment page)

IX reference list for the 15 required references

Visual and Performing Arts Fieldtrips: K-8

I Intro
A Topic/Problem:
1. School fieldtrips are viewed as central to school missions (Greene et al. 2014)

2. School Fieldtrips, especially cultural-based ones, are decreasing in number and
frequency (Green et al., 2014)

B Why it is the topic important
1 Since 2014, museums have provided more than 750,000 museum visits for low-

income students (American Alliance of Museums, 2020)
2 Without school-based fieldtrips, children of less privileged families less likely to

be exposed to forms of cultural capital, such as trips to art museums (Garcia,

3. Cultural fieldtrips contribute to children’s positive cognitive and social
development (Deng, 2017)

C Brief description of the policy proposed to address the issue/problem
1. Policy proposes requiring public K-8 schools to take children on at least one

cultural fieldtrip per year,
2. Starting in Kindergarten and ending in 8th grade
3. By 8th grade, every child will have been to two art museums, two dance

performances, two theatrical productions, and two classical music concerts
D over-view of what the paper will do and cover
This paper will review the extant of children’s experience of school-based fieldtrips

and participation in cultural activities in the visual and performing arts. It will then
provide a critical analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of existing policy. Next,
the paper will review current research on a) how children develop cultural capital;
and (b) the developmental advantages of exposure to the visual and performing arts.
The paper will then describe a detailed proposal for an evidence-based visual and
performing arts school fieldtrip policy, describe the stated goals of the policy, and
indicate how the effectiveness of the policy will be evaluated. The paper will
conclude with a discussion of how this policy promotes children’s well-being and
meets the criteria of the United Nations Children’s Rights Convention.

II Stats that show the current state with respect to your policy/need for the policy
A Statistics

1 96% of Americans value museums and believe that museums are important and
need more funding (American Association of Museums, 2020)

2 In the last six years, museums have served over 750,000 low-income students
have provided more than two billion annually in education based activities
(American Association of Museums, 2020), but museums are reporting serving
fewer students per year (Brookings Institute, 2018

3 In 2011/2012, over 50% of school administrators reported eliminating school
fieldtrips, and in 2015/2016, 30% of school administrators reported eliminating
school fieldtrips and only 12% reporting restoring school fieldtrips to pre-
recession levels (American Association of School Administrators, 2017).

4 Adult attendance at visual and performing arts venues is increasing but still
relatively low: art museums (23.7%); musicals (16.5%): plays (9.4%), classical
music (8.6%); Jazz (8.6%); Dance (6.3%); Latin/Spanish/Salsa (5.9%); Ballet

B explanation of how the stats show a need for the policy
The public values museums/arts, but schools are ever reducing the number of

fieldtrips they take kids on. Adults are relatively unlikely to take children as leisure
activity *whether by preference, financial barriers, or access* and thus, children are
less likely to be exposed to the visual and performing arts at a period when they are
most likely to benefit from that exposure.

III Existing Policy Review
A Visual and Performing Arts Standards (https://www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/

1. Arts promote our creativity while also stimulating our intelligence. Schools

are required to expose children to the visual and performing arts: dance,
music, theater, and visual arts. The visual and performing arts are to be
woven into the curriculum as much as possible

2. Strengths: Learn through active participation, read about a range of artists
and artforms, engaging in critical analysis, promotes creativity and problem-
solving (Walton, 2018)

3. Weaknesses: Standards do not require fieldtrips, do not state extent of
exposure, do not help build cultural capital (Greene et al, 2014) or
necessarily empower communities (Chiwara, 2016)

B AB 341: School Field Trips – Expenses
1. Rescinds a provision of the CA education that prohibits schools from paying

the expenses of students going on a field trip
2. Strengths: Prevents the exclusion of students who cannot pay/afford to go

(Garcia, 2015) and eliminates the need for schools to forgo fieldtrips
because some students would not be able to attend

3. Weaknesses: Does not provide a stream of funding for school fieldtrips;
does not specify that at least some of the fieldtrips promote the development
of cultural capital (Greene et al. 2014).

C summary of policies; key points; and discussion of scholarly article
addressing the issues related to these policies (this article is separate from
the lit review)

IV Lit Review: 12 research articles; grouped into subsections of related articles (the number
of articles in each subtopic will vary but you need at least two); each article lists, goals,
subjects and results; at the end of subsections you will summarize key findings and
explain how these finding support your policy – do NOT do this article by article
A Inequity/Social and Economic Privilege
Yi-Ping and Chin-Chun (2014)

Goals: Examine the connection between social class, values, and children’s
engagement in after-school activities and the connection to cultural capital
Subjects: 2,126 pairs of students, 51.5% males, and one parent from Taiwan. The
participants were first assessed in 7th grade and came from economically and
socially diverse families.

Results: (a) Wealthier families more likely to enroll children in after-
activities; (b) Parental cultural capital (education, books in home, participation in
arts and music) strongly predictive of children’s afterschool activities; Cultural
capital influences parenting values and enrollment in activities; children from
families with more cultural capital more likely to be enrolled in western music
classes (seen as status), in art and calligraphy classes. Sports and computer
courses are not related to cultural capital.

Carson, Gerhard, and Hans (2017)
Goals: Test the extent to which acquiring transnational cultural capital depends

on families’ cultural capital and child-rearing values
Subjects: Qualitative interview with 26 German families of youth ages 15- to 18.

19 of the families sent their child on a year abroad.
Results: Parents who sent child abroad had the economic means; part of a
parents’ strategy to reproduce their social status, parents have own transnational
experience abroad; exposure to cultures that go beyond what learn at school and
by learning a foreign language; upper class know more peers who have gone,
expected. “Concerted cultivation” – part of the child’s social and cognitive

Garcia (2015)
Goals: analyze how social position influences parents’ leisure activities with

Subjects: 610 cohabitating/married economically and ethnically diverse British
couples with a child between the ages of 4- and 15.
Results: (a) low-income, less educated mothers participate less frequently in out-
of-home cultural activities with children; (b) fathers’ participation in out-of-home
cultural activities is dependent on mothers’ participation; (c) privileged mothers
play an active role in arranging out-of-home cultural activities with their
husbands and children, which are typically family-organized activities.

Subtopic 1 Summary
Children’s exposure to cultural capital (i.e., arts, music, dance, museums, etc.) is

highly dependent on social and economic class, with wealthier parents or parents
with greater social/cultural capital being more likely to value and expose their
children to the visual and performing arts. This suggests that if lower income children
are not enrolled in a school that takes fieldtrips to cultural organizations, these
children face inequity.

B Benefits of Cultural Capital
Mikus, Tieben, and Schober, (2020)

Goals: Tests: (1) If cultural capital conversion takes place via its symbolic
function, beaux-arts consumption will be associated with higher teacher
performance ratings net of children’s objective competencies; (2) if reading
behaviour directly stimulates children’s competence development, reading
behaviour will be associated with higher competence test scores of children

Subjects: 2,428 German 5th graders; 49% male, economically diverse
Results: (a) Beaux Arts consumption defined as: classical concerts, opera and

ballet performances, ii) theatre, and iii) museums or art exhibitions during the last
12 months; (b) more highly-educated parents possess a higher level of cultural
capital with respect to beaux-arts consumption as well as frequency of reading;
(c) large and positive association between parents’ and children’s beaux-arts
consumption and reading frequency; (d) children’s beaux-arts consumption is
positively related to their German grade even after controlling for reading scores;
(e) Beaux-Arts consumption provides a symbolic boost to academic competence.

Kisida, Greene, and Bowen (2014)
Goals: test whether there is cultural mobility; mobility occurs because
disadvantaged children can be helped to acquire cultural capital, which
compensates for family background characteristics.

Subjects: 80 school groups toured an American Art Museum, and 80 similar
school groups who had their tours deferred until spring; 8,239 Children in grades
3- to 12; average = 6th grade; 51% female; 60% white, 18% Latinx, 3% African-
American; 19% other; 54% low-income

Results: (a) single tour of a museum increased students’ interest in visiting a
museum; (b) students with less prior cultural capital more interested; (c) Effect is

stronger for low-income students; (d) disadvantaged students more interest in
engaging with art in general after museum visit; (e ) – 58% of the returnees
(those who used the coupon to come back to the museum with their families)
were those who received the tour.

Xu and Hampden-Thompson (2012).
Goals: to systematically examine perspectives based on cultural reproduction,
cultural mobility, and cultural resources and to test whether any identified
impacts are practically significant (meaningful). The four models have different
predictions about the association between cultural capital and educational
performance and whether cultural capital has differential effects on students from
low-income versus high-income families

Subjects: International survey of 32 countries; students were, on average, 15-
Results: (a) parental status resources have been successfully turned into
children’s cultural capital, especially in liberal regimes; (b) in social welfare
states (e.g., Denmark, Sweden), cultural mobility is supported; cultural capital
have positive and significant effects on reading-, mathematics-, and science-
assessment scores; (c) effect of cultural capital on educational performance is
similar for students across all status groups; (d) in all states (mediterranean
liberal, corporate, and social democracy), cultural capital tends to be reproduced
– passing from parent to child, and the benefits are stronger for those with more
cultural capital.

Subtopic 2 Summary
Cultural capital appears to benefit students academically across a wide range of

subjects. Cultural capital does not appear to directly develop skills, but it provides
familiarity and knowledge. It does appear that cultural capital can be promoted in
children not exposed to it at home, suggesting that schools which provide fieldtrips to
cultural institutions can help to achieve greater equity.

C Children’s Exposure to Visual and Performing Arts
Tazi, Vidal, and Stein, (2015)

Goals: explore the extent to which a school-museum collaboration resulted in a
bilingual parent-child program promoting school readiness and social inclusion
for Latino families.

Subjects: 60 LatinX preschooler and their mothers living in an economically
diverse suburban community.
Results: Art and culture based activities facilitated development of children’s
school readiness skills (observation skills, creativity, critical thinking,
vocabulary, and aesthetic appreciation)

Kaufman, Rinehardt, Hine, Wilkinson, Tush, Mead, and Fernandez, (2014).
Goals: Test the effects of an intervention (Junior Docent Program) at an art
museum on children’s self-concept

Subjects: 176 children, 69 boys/107 girls, ages 7-13; demographics reflect Tampa
Results: (a) significant, positive increases in self-concept from pre- to post-test;
(b) notable decrease in the Conflict score, suggesting a move to decrease the
negative in their lives; (c) improved perceptions of how others view them; (d)
increases in confidence in grades and school; (3) students who took their families
on the museum tour (relative to those who did not) had the highest self-concept

Akiva, Schunn, and Louw, (2017).
Goals: what drives youth attendance at (a) established art museums – fee based

afterschool program; and (b) community youth serving organization – free
STEAM programming; what is the role of youth interest, pragmatics, and

Subjects: (1) local organization = 81 10-year-olds; 70% female; (2) art museum

95 11-year-olds,
Results; both groups interest in art and technology; art museum attendees more

interested in art; the STEAM kids had attended fewer art or science programs
than the museum kids; the art interested art museum kids – likely to also have
attended science/technology programming; STEAM kids more likely to come
from neighborhoods with high rates of African American members, high poverty,
and without BA/BS degrees (opposite pattern for museum kids); Art museum
used city-wide recruiting (STEAM neighborhood specific); interest in art was the
strongest driver in participation in museum; museum needs to work on bringing
in more diverse groups of children

Greene, Erickson, Watson, and Beck, (2018)
Goals: Do children benefit from school fieldtrips to see live theater?

Subjects: 309 PK-8 teachers; 90% Euro-Anglo; 91% female; 70% had an

Results; Youth who saw the play had significantly higher scores on measures of:
tolerance; content knowledge of the plot; vocabulary; and social perspective

Clarke-Vivier and Lee, (2018)
Goals: What influences teachers’ engagement in out-of-school fieldtrips? What
helps or harms the planning and implementation of the fieldtrips

Subjects: 1500 randomly assigned students to see A Christmas Carol, Hamlet,
Around the World in 80 Days, and Peter and the Starcatchers, and Twelfth Night
(treatment) or a control group (no performance, or a movie similar to the play);
average age = 14; on average 8th and 9th graders; 67% Euro-Anglo;
Results; In the previous year, 19% never took their students, 25% once, and 50%
two or more times; 65% reported not learning about creating fieldtrips in teacher
credential programs; benefits included: academic extensions; authenticity;
student engagement, motivation, curiosity, memorable experiences, exposure to
the wider world; barriers were logistical planning, funding, transportation, and

Kisida, Bowen, and Greene, (2018).
Goals: Does participation in a museum education program increase students’
interest in museums?

Subjects: 2,253 K-2nd grade children randomly assigned to participate in an art
museum education program (matched control groups were deferred); 48%
female; majority Euro-Anglo (60%), 20% LatinX; 45% low income
Results; Students in the treatment group developed more positive attitudes
towards art; students’ in the treatment group gained more knowledge about art

Subtopic 3 Summary
Students gain academically and socially emotionally from cultural fieldtrips; research

suggests students enjoy the fieldtrips and gain motivation and interest in what they
experience. These studies support a policy that requires at least one cultural field trip
per year.

D Children with Special Needs
Deng, (2017).

Goals: Test the impact of a 6-week museum program (six weekly visits focused
on a particular topic and included a social story that was designed to help the
participants better cope with the novelty of the museum environment through
relevant social cues explaining the museum rules and expectations. Each visit
included a 45-minute guided gallery tour, a 10-minute break, and an artmaking
studio component. The weekly topics included Still Life, Animal Art Texture
Collage, Warm and Cool Colors, Lovely Landscapes, Patterns, and Monotype
Portraits) on children with Autism

Subjects: 10 children with ASD; children were 8- to-15-years and all were high
Functioning; 9 boys; seven Euro-Anglo; 2 African-American, 1 bi-racial

Results: after each lesson, children consistently demonstrated high levels of
Knowledge of the art concepts; behaviors (ask questions, respond to questions,
requests for self) steadily increased over time; increases in the social
responsiveness scale (e.g., reduction in repetitive behavior, increases in
motivation and social awareness and social cognition);

Fletcher, Blake, and Shelffo, (2018).
Goals: explore ways children with sensory challenges might have an enjoyable
experience either with their peers on field trips or during their family museum

Subjects: 14 families with children ages 4- to 18 with Autism;
Results: sensory guides provided structure; flexibility permitted adjustment for

children’s needs and interests; children stayed longer; children better able to
engage in intellectual aspects of the experience

Subtopic 4 Summary
Children with special needs can and should enjoy museum trips. Children with

special needs can and do learn from the experience. Museums should have a
developed, inclusive curriculum and a design that supports various needs. The
proposed policy will require teachers with special education expertise to work with
local museums to develop appropriate programming.

V Policy Proposal
A detailed proposal (components of the policy linked to the stats (II), the lit review

(III), and existing policy (IV) – this answers who, what, where, when, and how;
the why is selected results, stats, or policies from sections II, III, and IV
1 This policy proposes requiring public K-8 schools to take students on at least one

cultural fieldtrip per year. These field trips may serve as a correction for the
30-50% of school administrators who have eliminated field trips from their
curriculum due to budget cuts (American Association of School Administrators,

2 This policy aligns with Common Core Standards for the visual and performing
arts, by requiring schools to take children to visual art museums, theatrical
productions, music performances, and dance performances, such that by 8th grade
students have experienced at least two of each type. This is important because we
know that relatively few adults attend these performances (arts.gov), and those
that do are more likely to upper class (Garcia, 2015). Moreover, cultural capital is
less likely to be something that is mobile; instead it is acquired from parents
(Carlson et al., 2017; Mikus & Tieben, 2020; Yi-Ping &Chin-Chun, 2014)

3 Schools will be required to provide adequate transportation, funding, and
planning time to teachers to facilitate these annual field trips (Clarke-Vivier, &
Lee, 2018).

4. Teachers will be required to explore students’ interests and prior experiences
prior to the fieldtrip to maximize children’s capacity to learn and grow from the
experience; this includes tying the fieldtrip explicitly into the curriculum (Akiva,
Schunn, & Louw, 2017; Kisida et al., 2018; Tazi, Vidal & Stein, 2015).

5. Children will be expected to build on their fieldtrip in subsequent project-based
learning opportunities, such that their imaginative and creative thinking is
utilized (Fleming, Gibson, Anderson, Martin, & Sudmalis, 2016), as they develop
their academic skills (e.g., vocabulary, critical thinking, content knowledge: Green
et al, 2018; Mikus, Tieben, & Schober, 2020).

6. Teachers will be required to collaborate with special education experts and staff
at the venues to develop a curriculum for the day’s field trip that addresses the

needs of students’ with special needs and ensures they participate, enjoy the
experience, and benefit academically (Deng, 2017; Fletcher et al., 2018)

B set of specific, concrete, evidence-based goals you want the policy to achieve
1. Students will gain academic skills (e.g., math, reading, critical thinking) and

improve their grades (Green et al., 2018; Mikus et al., 2020; Tazi et al., 2017)
2. Students will gain social-emotional skills and increase creativity (e.g., tolerance,

self-concept: Green et al., 2018; Kaufman et al., 2015)
3. Students will gain interest in the visual and performing arts and develop tangible

cultural capital (e.g., participation in arts and culture outside of school) (Kisida et
al., 2014; Kisida et al., 2018; Mikus et al., 2020;

VII Evaluation
A process (how you will test that the components of the policy were implemented

1 Schools will be surveyed annually and asked to report on their field trips (where

they went, visual and performing arts standards it addressed)
2 Teachers will be surveyed about their planning process, linkage to the

curriculum, associated project-based learning activities
3 Principals will report on the supports provided to teachers to facilitate the

4. Special Education teachers will be asked to report on their contribution to the

planning of the fieldtrips and their assessment of the appropriateness of the
experience for children with special needs

B outcomes – how you will test that the goals were achieved
1 goal 1: Improved academic skills will be tested in K, 4th, and 8th grade by

examining students’ projects and standardized tests; Grades will be collected

2 goal 2: Social and emotional skills will be measure in K, 4th, and 8th grade via
parent report, child self-report, and teacher report; Creativity will be assessed in
4th and 8th grade by student self-report and objective measures of creativity (e.g.,
divergent thinking, ratings of projects)

3 goal 3: Student interest in the visual and performing arts will be measured by
self-report in 4th and 8th grade; Cultural Capital will be measured by parent and
youth report in 4th and 8th grade

VIII Conclusion
A summary of key points (stats, prior policies, lit review)
B summary of policy proposal and how this will promote child well-being
in a broad sense

1. Children who have exposure to the arts and cultural capital tend to obtain
more creative and satisfying jobs as adults (Koopman, 2016)

2. Cultural capital acts as a multiplier effect helping low income children
experience social, educational, and economic mobility as adolescents and
young adults (Crul et al., 2017)

C how the policy promotes children’s rights – citing specific articles from the
Children’s Rights Convention (see the article posted on the assignment page)

This policy promotes two of the articles of the CRC:
(1): article 31 (leisure, play and culture) Every child has the right to relax, play

and take part in a wide range of cultural and artistic activities.
(2) Article 28 (right to education) Every child has the right to an
education. Primary education must be free and different forms of
secondary education must be available to every child

IX reference list for the 15 required references
Akiva, T., Schunn, C. D., & Louw, M. (2017). What drives attendance at informal learning

activities? A Study of two art programs. Curator, 60(3), 351–364
Carlson, S., Gerhards, J., & Hans, S. (2017). Educating children in times of globalisation: Class-

specific child-rearing practices and the acquisition of transnational cultural
capital. Sociology, 51(4), 749-765.

Chiwara, D. (2016). Fostering Human Rights and Empowering Communities through Art and
Education: The Case of the National Gallery of Zimbabwe. Museum International, 68(3-4),

Clarke-Vivier, S., & Lee, J. (2018). Because life doesn’t just happen in a classroom: Elementary
and middle school teacher perspectives on the benefits of, and obstacles to, out-of-school
learning. Issues in Teacher Education, 27(3), 55-72

Crul, M., Schneider, J., Keskiner, E., & Lelie, F. (2017). The multiplier effect: How the
accumulation of cultural and social capital explains steep upward social mobility of
children of low-educated immigrants. Ethnic and Racial Studies: Special Issue: The
Upcoming New Elite Among Children of Immigrants, 40(2), 321-338.

Deng, L. (2017). Equity of access to cultural heritage: Museum experience as a facilitator of
learning and socialization in children with Autism. Curator: The Museum Journal, 60(4),

Fleming, J., Gibson, R., Anderson, M., Martin, A. J., & Sudmalis, D. (2016). Cultivating
imaginative thinking: teacher strategies used in high-performing arts education
classrooms. Cambridge Journal of Education, 46(4), 435–453.

Fletcher, T. S., Blake, A. B., & Shelffo, K. E. (2018). Can sensory gallery guides for children with
sensory processing challenges improve their museum experience? Journal of Museum
Education, 43(1), 66–77.

Gracia, P. (2015). Parent–child leisure activities and cultural capital in the United Kingdom: The
gendered effects of education and social class. Social Science Research, 52, 290-302.

Greene, J., Erickson, H., Watson, A., & Beck, M. (2018). The play’s the thing: Experimentally
examining the social and cognitive effects of school field trips to live theater
performances. Educational Researcher, 47(4), 246-254

Greene, J., Kisida, B., & Bowen, D. (2014). The educational value of field trips: Taking students
to an art museum improves critical thinking skills, and more. Education Next, 14(1), 78-86

Kaufman, R., Rinehardt, E., Hine, H., Wilkinson, B., Tush, P., Mead, B., & Fernandez, F. (2014).
The effects of a museum art program on the self-concept of children. Art Therapy: Journal
of the American Art Therapy Association, 31(3), 118–125

Koppman, S. (2016). Different Like Me. Administrative Science Quarterly, 61(2), 291–331
Kisida, B., Greene, J., & Bowen, D. (2014). Creating Cultural Consumers: The Dynamics of

Cultural Capital Acquisition. Sociology of Education, 87(4), 281-295
Kisida, B., Bowen, D., & Greene, J. (2018). Cultivating interest in art: Causal effects of arts

exposure during early childhood. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 45, 197-203.
Mikus, K., Tieben, N., & Schober, P. (2020). Children’s conversion of cultural capital into

educational success: The symbolic and skill-generating functions of cultural capital. British
Journal of Sociology of Education, 41(2), 197-217

Tazi, Z., Vidal, H., & Stein, K. (2015). Arte Juntos/Art Together: Promoting School Readiness
among Latino Children through Parent Engagement and Social Inclusion in a Suburban
Museum. Museum & Society, 13(2), 158-171

Xu, J., & Hampden-Thompson, G. (2012). Cultural reproduction, cultural mobility, cultural
resources, or trivial effect? A comparative approach to cultural capital and educational
performance. Comparative Education Review, 56(1), 98-124

Yi-Ping S. & Chin-Chun, Y. (2014). Cultivating the difference: Social class, parental values,
cultural capital and children’s after-school activities in Taiwan. Journal of Comparative
Family Studies, 45(1), 55–75.


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