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Please look at number 3 updoad on Revised 

Running head: SYNTHESIS PAPER 1


Synthesis Paper:

Student’s Name:

Institutional Affiliation:

Synthesis Paper


Doctoral students need to have research skills that will help them to develop and implement ideas. All three articles have focused on how these students can improve their skills and, thus, becoming competent. The article by Baker & Pifer (2011) focuses on imparting students with personal, professional, and transferrable skills to make them perform well in their careers. Smith and Hatmaker (2014) are interested in making students know what they need to do and do it. Hence, they shall develop their professional identity. Gardener (2009) says that students need to cultivate a good relationship with the faculty to be guided in their research. In all three, themes of academic success, relationships, and self-drive are evident.

Theme 1: Academic Success

Achieving success in academics involves getting good grades and getting all the goals that were set. According to Baker & Pifer (2011), doctoral students should be imparted with the requisite skills to succeed academically. There should be both in-class and online tutorials to make sure that the students complete their studies successfully. Online platforms can be used even when the supervisor is not on campus, and they can answer whatever the questions students have. Therefore, it’s convenient. Students can also do assignments online and submit them where the system grades them automatically. Students need to be committed to their studies to have the necessary research skills (Gardener, 2009). Consistency and positivity should be embraced at all times. They should also consult their supervisors for directions and advice so that they remain on the right track. They should set targets in terms of the grades and scores they want to get, and that will make them work harder. Students who are proactive and develop a good relationship with the faculty become successful in their studies (Smith & Hatmaker, 2015). There was a study that was done among students researching public administration in European and American universities. Doctoral students should know what they want and make things happen instead of waiting for things to happen. They start reading and doing research to make themselves better. In the process, they develop ideas that are tested and proven to be helpful in the society. Thus, they become change agents in the society and they feel that have accomplished something.

Theme 2: Relationships

Relationships involve getting networks where the doctoral students should relate well with the faculty, other doctoral students, and professionals (Smith and Hatmaker, 2015). Gardener (2009) and Baker & Pifer (2011) emphasize on the same issue. Faculty members have experienced research that can offer good guidance mentorship to the students. Therefore, it is good to be close to them, and that will lead to success. Also, doctoral students should relate well with one another to assist each other in their studies and research. Success requires others, and thus, it is good to know how to deal with people. Being able to get along well with people helps build communication skills necessary for the workplace. No one can lead people without being good at communication. People have different opinions, and their attitudes are different. When hired to lead an organization or a group of people, it is the skills of dealing with people that will enable the person to influence them towards the desired direction. First of all, they need to be informed about the vision and mission of the organization. From there, they get to know why they need to do what is required of them. They work harder, and that is how they make the organization reach greater heights. Studies have shown that employees are satisfied with their work if they have a good relationship with management. Likewise, doctoral students do well when they establish a good relationship with their departments and faculties. These skills are vital since they will be working with people after their studies. 

Theme 3: Self-drive

Self-drive is the one that makes these doctoral students do what is needed of them without being followed up. After all, they enrolled in the program willingly because they know what they want. It is that self-drive that will make them complete the program successfully. They should be able to reflect on their learning and be creative. If they require more training, they should go for it to compete well with others (Baker & Pifer, 2011). Focus, time management, proper organization, and motivation are part of self-drive that makes the students successfully finish the program (Gardener, 2009). Proper preparation leads to an understanding of the course materials and creative research ideas (Smith & Hatmaker, 2015). Research requires reading widely to get different ideas on the kind of topic to come up with. A research topic needs to be unique to avoid plagiarism. Additionally, the topic should be about an issue that can be researched using the available methods. In other words, the topic should be realistic. Only those students who are motivated will finish their work on time. Some submit work after the deadline leading to reduction of marks. Also, their work is of low quality, and that leads to poor grades. These are the students who do not prioritize things and end up regretting it. Some students start the program with vigor, but that reduces with time. There is a lot of investment done by those who enroll in the doctoral program, and they should ensure that it does not go into waste by being serious with their work. Some students waste their chance and end up being depressed and having a low sense of self -esteem. 


All three articles focus on doctoral students’ success, where they need to do well in their coursework and get the requisite research skills. These students need to work hard and consistently to achieve their goals. Doctoral students are considered to have succeeded if they get good grades and complete the degree program. Establishing a good relationship with the faculty and other students is part of ensuring that the students get the desired grades. Besides, they will consult the professors and get guided in their research. Doctoral students focus more on research to come up with solutions to most of the problems facing people in the society. These students should be self-driven to have an easier time and cooperate well with the instructors. They will submit their reports and assignments on time, and they will be given feedback. Having goals will act as the motivator to keep going so that they can be achieved. These goals should also be given a time limit. Having a time frame helps to get focused and avoid distractions. One cannot relax when they remember that they need to achieve a specific goal by a particular time.


Baker, V. L., & Pifer, M. J. (2011). The role of relationships in the transition from doctor to independent scholar. Studies in Continuing Education, 33(1), 5-17.Doi:10.1080/0158037X.2010.515569

Gardner, S. K. (2009). Conceptualizing success in doctoral education: Perspectives of faculty in seven disciplines. The Review of Higher Education, 32(3), 383-406.Doi:10.1353/rhe.0.0075

Smith, A. E., & Hatmaker, D. M. (2014). Knowing, doing, and becoming: Professional identity construction among public affairs doctoral students. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 20(4), 545-564.



Revised Researcher Skills Paper

Insert your name here

College of Doctoral Studies, Grand Canyon University

RES820A: The Literature Landscape: Organizational Leadership

Dr. Davis

Assignment Due Date


This assignment requires a Reflection Section (250-300 words) addressing your revision process and how you incorporated your instructor’s feedback into the revised version. This section will receive its own page (similar to the format of an abstract). It will be located after the title page and before the Introduction. This is the ONLY section that you may write in 1st person.

Revised Researcher Skills Paper

Provide an introduction that starts with an interesting “hook” to capture the reader’s interest and support that “hook” and your introduction with academic support (in-text citations). Although the directions say to introduce the articles with a brief description and purpose I ask you to please not include such an introduction. The focus of this assignment is not the articles themselves but rather using the articles as a resource to support your writing. In fact, please do not even mention “the articles”. Consider the articles that you have read for this course and how they do not introduce the articles they are using in such a way. Identify the three themes that emerged from your reading and how they will be discussed in the paper. Conclude the introduction with your thesis statement.

Theme You Have Identified

DO NOT use Theme 1 as your header – use a 2-4 word header that identifies your theme. You will do the same thing with themes 2 and 3. The synthesis paper should include three common themes identified by a header and addressed within that particular section and a conclusion that will present overall message of the group of articles. Please note that section headings are centered, in bold face, and are in Title Case. The three body sections will be followed by your conclusion. Please remember that your conclusion should not discuss the conclusions of the studies but rather the overall message of the three articles if they are taken together as a single entity.

In this section, discuss the first theme that you have identified as common amongst the three articles. You must include evidence (in-text citations) from EACH of the articles to show that this theme was present in ALL THREE OF THE ARTICLES. While this is a shorter paragraph, your paragraphs should be between 90-150 words.

Your Second Theme Here

This section should include your second identified theme. Again, note that headings are centered, bold face, and are in Title Case as they are Level 1 headings. You must include evidence (in-text citations) from EACH of the articles to show that this theme was present in ALL THREE OF THE ARTICLES.

You will need to support your contention of the common theme by presenting evidence from the articles. This evidence from the text should be cited using the author’s name and year of publication rather than using the title of the article or referring to the articles as Article 1, Article 2, and Article 3. This is especially the case when we are presenting specific information e.g. research questions, sample, outcomes etc. from multiple sources. Imagine discussing 5, 10, 15 articles at once in a paper and referring to each by number. Further, situating the authors firmly within sentences and throughout your discussion addresses academic integrity.

Your Third Theme Here

This section should include your second identified theme. Again, note that headings are centered, bold face, and are in Title Case. Just as in the prior section, make sure that you introduce the contents of this section prior to jumping into your narrative. You must include evidence (in-text citations) from EACH of the articles to show that this theme was present in ALL THREE OF THE ARTICLES.

You need to develop these sections thoroughly. While in this template only includes one to two paragraphs for each of the sections, which would not necessarily constitute a thorough presentation within your paper. Remember, you need to assume your reader has not read this articles.


What are your conclusions after comparing these three articles? What commonalities or differences were most striking or meaningful? If you consider all three articles to be a single entity, what conclusions can you draw from their combined research? What is the overall message of the articles, and why is that important?

The conclusion should relate back to your introduction and provide your reader with a concise and reflective summary of your analysis. The conclusion should be at MINIMUM 2-3 paragraphs. While this assignment has a word count in the directions of 1,250-1,800 words, one must ask themselves if what has been present represents a thorough presentation of the articles. However, I would challenge you to keep your paper under 2,500 words. This is a great time to work on being more clear and concise.


Klocko, B. A., Marshal, S. M., & Davidson, J. F. (2015). Developing practioner-scholar doctoral candidates as critical writers. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 15(4). 21-31.

Lee, H., Chang, H., & Bryan, L. (2020). Doctoral students’ learning success in online-based

leadership programs: Intersection with technological and relational factors. International

Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 21(1), 61-81.

Lindsay, S. (2015). What works for doctoral students in completing their thesis? Teaching in Higher Education, 20(2). 183-196.


Barrett, T., & Hussey, J. (2015). Overcoming problems in doctoral writing through the use of visualizations: Telling our stories. Teaching in Higher Education, 20(1), 48-63.

Black, R. (2017). E-Mentoring the online doctoral student from the dissertation prospectus through dissertation completion. Journal of Learning in Higher Education, 13(1), 1-8.

Caskey, M. M., Stevens, D. D., & Yeo, M. (2020). Examining doctoral student development of a researcher identity: Using the draw a researcher test. Impacting Education: Journal on Transforming Professional Practice, 5(1), 16-26.

Guerin, C., Aitchison, C., & Carter, S. (2020). Digital and distributed: Learning and teachingdoctoral writing through social media. Teaching in Higher Education, 25(2), 238-254

Holmes, B., McAuley Brown, L. T., Parker, D. M., Mann, J. Woods, E. L., …Hall, D. (2016 Decoding the persistence and engagement patterns of doctoral students who finish. Education Doctorate Faculty Works, 11.

Huerta, M., Goodson, P., Beigi, M., & Chlup, D. (2017). Graduate students as academic writers: Writing anxiety, self-efficacy and emotional intelligence. Higher Education Research & Development, 36(4), 716-729.

Hutchings, M. (2017). Improving doctoral support through group supervision: Analysing face-to-face and technology-mediated strategies for nurturing and sustaining scholarship. Studies in Higher Education, 42(3), 533-550.

Moate, R. M., Gnilka, P. B., West, E. M., & Rice, K. G. (2019). Doctoral student perfectionism and emotional well-being. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 52(3), 145-155.

Odena, O. & Burgess, H. (2017). How doctoral students and graduates describe facilitating experiences and strategies for their thesis writing learning process: A qualitative approach. Studies in Higher Education, 42(3), 572-590.

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