Tws4 design for instruction

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TWS Standard

The teacher designs instruction for specific learning goals, student characteristics and needs, and learning contexts.

WKU 9014

Teacher Work Sample

Submitted by:

Kelly Headrick

March 7, 2008

Grade : Kindergarten

Subject : Social Studies

Western Kentucky University

EDU 489

Student Teaching Seminar

I

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Table of Contents

Contextual Factors ……………………………………………………………3

Learning Goals …………………………………………………………………………………..6

Assessment Plan ……………………………………………………………..8

Design for Instruction ……………………………………………………… 13

Instructional Decision Making ……………………………………………..19

Analysis of Student Learning ………………………………………………21

Reflection and Self Evaluation …………………………………………….25

References ………………………………………………………………… 28

Appendices ……………………………………………………………….29

A. Unit Pretest/Posttest

B. Pr etes r oS teSt Ai-,s i%ve ► Key

C. Student Score Summary: Pretest

D. Student Score Summary: Posttest

E. Samples of Formative Assessment for Student N

F. Samples of Formative Assessni.” , for Student S

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Contextual Factors

Knowledge of Community , District , and School Factors : This Title I elementary

school is located in the County School District. Although the town is growing,

with a population of around 14,000, the area still remains very rural. The school has the

largest enrollment in the district, with over 700 students. From preschool to sixth grade,

the school maintains a goal that all students can learn at high levels and that all students

can read at or about grade level. The school is predominantly Caucasian, with a few

students who are African American, Chinese, Japanese, Mexican, or biracial. There are a

variety of socioeconomic classes represented, with services such as free/reduced lunch

and an excellent family/resource center. There are structured procedures for everything

from behavior in the hallway, restrooms, and cafeteria, to a voice level rubric. The

school is lucky to have an iY:mrnense number of parent volunteers, as well as an active

Parent Teacher Organization and several community business partners.

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Kii0wge oY Classroo ‘K Z C i ris. f iieie ai’c niaily iactorrs that n akc 01is Yiindergar”teo

classroom student-friendly and a great place to learn. There are many resources and

materials available, including a vast library, 2 computers that students can access, a Smart

Board, overhead projector, posters with key vocabulary and concepts, and a wide variety

of manipulatives and center activities. There are reading and math blocks that are ability-

grouped before lunch, and the rest of the day is spent with students in their homeroom

conducting literature focus activities, social studies and science connections, and special

classes. Students are seated at tables of six, and schoolwide discipline procedures apply.

Parent/Teacher conferences are held regularly and a folder is sent home nightly to parents

e,u^with student ^iork and notes and Y epo rts c f behavv io .

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Knowledge of Student Characteristics . Based on Thoughtful Education, the students

have a variety of learning styles. The majority of students, 13, are Mastery learners,

which means they prefer structured and organized instruction and activities. 4 students

are Understanding, 4 students are Interpersonal, and 2 are Self-Expressive learners. The

students are all 5-6 years old, and there are 12 males and II females. They are

predominantly Caucasian, with one student who is Mexican-American and one who is

Biracial. The classroom has a predominantly American culture, with one migrant family,

and almost half of the students have parents who are divorced or remarried. All students

are proficient English speakers; I student speaks English as his second language but he is

very proficient. There are 2 students with IEP’s who have been identified for special

education services. 4 students attend speech therapy, and 2 students attend Lit Lab

because of low reading skills. The students are very interested in sports, love to work on

the computers, and enjoy working in centers and hands-on activities. 75% of the

i assiooiii is considered aveiagelull glade level, while I5 /o ai’c above average. and 1 3%

are below. The students are considered developing readers. In regard to background

knowledge and prior learning, the students are limited on knowledge about the presidents.

They have discussed some historical figures briefly, but have not concentrated on

Lincoln, Washington, or other noted presidents. They have an idea who the president is,

but they do not understand the role the president plays or what the title really means.

They have discussed some of the presidents briefly, as they have learned about money,

but the majority of the information I teach will be new.

Instructional Implications : All of the before mentioned factors will play a vital role in

< ik^i ai^i^iiig lily iirau”i.iCtioii an d as3cssliic’ilt. nS’:l_^.s^ i of a tut , ‘Lux e pro ce dures and Sai rk,iuCt*wiC or the

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school , as well as this class , provide the framework for establishing a maintained

classroom environment while I am teaching. It will be important for me to be familiar

with and utilize the same rules that the students are accustomed to. The wide variety of

resources will prove to be helpful in facilitating student learning while i am teaching.

In a lot of ways , this class is typical of that of most Kindergarten classes. These

students are very energetic and social. As a result , it will be important for me to make

sure that all of my lessons are engaging and keep them actively involved . I will also need

to provide an abundance of hands -on learning experiences , which will provide additional

practice in still-developing fine motor skills, as well as many visual aids . Another factor

to consider is that most of the students are Mastery learners. This means that I must

make sure that instruction and processes are clear and structured, and that I provide step-

by-step directions.

Furthermore . I must also consider my students ‘ developmental levels. As a

w,vhole, the group is still developing as readers; thus, my assessments and activities must-

not involve long written activities as these skills are still progressing . Instead, I will

provide opportunities for students to show or explain what they have learned . I will also

need to make accommodations for my two students with IEP ‘s; I may need to provide

extra assistance for these students , including additional time, support , or readers /scribes.

Since the concept of presidents is relatively new to students, it will be my responsibility

to provide the foundation of this material . I will reinforce these concepts by connecting it

to information students have already covered , such as money , and the presidents that

appear on the currency they are so familiar with.

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Learning Goals

Learning Goal 1: The student will describe various leaders of our country and

interpret their historical significance.

Program of Studies- SS-P-HP-U-3: Students will understand that history has been

impacted by significant individuals and groups.

LGI aligns with this standard because the students will become knowledgeable about

important presidents of our country. These presidents were important leaders and

founders of our country, and thus have greatly impacted our nation’s history.

Level of Bloom- Analysis: LG1 fits this level and is appropriate because it requires

students to analyze the accomplishments of our national leaders in order to interpret their

historical significance.

Appropriateness of Goal: This goal is appropriate for my students because it will provide

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knowledge will serve as the basis for later concepts, such as their relation to major events

that shaped our country. This goal will provide opportunities for hands-on learning,

which is vital to this age group. It will also allow students to be appropriately challenged.

Learning Goal 2: The student will explain the historical significance of holidays

such as Presidents ‘ Day and evaluate why these celebrations are observed today.

Program of Studies- SS-P-HP-S-3: Students will investigate the significance of patriotic

symbols, patriotic songs, patriotic holidays and landmarks (e.g., the flag of the United

States, the song “My Country, “A’ is of Thee,” the Fourth of July, Veterans’ Day, the

Statue of Liberty).

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LG2 aligns with this standard because the students will become knowledgeable about the

patriotic holiday of Presidents’ Day. Through learning about this holiday, its history,

why it exists, and why it is still observed today, the students will have a grasp on the

different leaders who helped to found our country. Once they learn the background

behind the holiday, the will be able to evaluate why it is important.

Level of Bloom- Evaluating: LG2 fits this level and is appropriate because it requires

students to learn the background of the holiday of Presidents’ Day and justify why it is

still important to our country today.

Appropriateness of Goal: This goal is appropriate for my students because it will provide

them with a foundation of important presidents and historical figures, as well as the

background of a holiday that we all observe. This goal will provide opportunities for

hands-on learning, which is vital to this age group. It will also allow students to be

appropriately challenged.

Leaiariag Goal J+: The studelli will ewal late like hisior-ieai signnifle” ice of fka doflati

symbols, monuments , and landmarks

Core Content- SS-EP-5.2.1: Students will identify significant patriotic and historical

songs, symbols, monuments/landmarks (e.g., The Star Spangled Banner, the

Underground Railroad, the Statue of Liberty) and patriotic holidays (e.g., Veterans’ Day,

Martin Luther King’s birthday, Fourth of July) and explain their historical significance.

LG3 aligns with this standard because the students must be able to identify important

national symbols and what they represent in order to evaluate their significance to our

nation’s history.

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Level of Bloom – Evaluating: LG3 fits this level and is appropriate because it requires

students to not only be able to identify various national symbols, monuments, and

landmarks, but to also understand what they represent and the story they tell. This

understanding will be the basis for evaluating why these symbols have historical

significance.

Appropriateness of Goal: This goal is appropriate for my students because it will provide

fundamental knowledge concerning important and historically significant national

symbols . This goal too appropriately challenges students , and provides opportunities for

use of technology and hands-on activities.

Overview:

Learning Goal Assessments Format of
Assessments

Adaptations

Learning Goal 1: Pre-Assessment Pretest: Individual Pretest:
The student will oral assessment O Each test given
describe various Questions: i, 2, 3, S, individually to
leaders of our 9, 10, 14 students.
country and 0 Test questions
interpret their are read orally
historical to students and a
significance. scribe is

provided to
accommodate
developing
reading and
writing skills
and the two
students with
IEP’s.

Formative Tools: Writing Formative
Assessment prompt with rubric, . Level of

handouts, checklist, Support:
anecdotal notes Students with
Criteria: Students IEP’s may need
write about what ^ additional

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they would do if personal
they were president, assistance on
complete a Lincoln activities, such
handout where they as readers or
circle the picture scribes.
that represents a fact • Time: Students
about him, put with IEP’s may
events of his life in need additional
order, construct time to complete
Lincoln’s log cabin, assignments.
Washington handout • Input: Many
(put an X on facts visual, engaging
about him), activities, as
construct well as hands-on
Washington’s hat, learning
Comparison (hold opportunites.
up puppet of
president that
corresponds with
fact read);
(anecdotal
notes/checklist).

Post Assessnieiit Post Test: Post Test: (See
(Summative) Individual oral above adaptations

assessment for pretest)
Questions: 1, 2, 3, 8,
9, 10, i4

Learning Goal Assessments Format of Adaptations
Assessments

Learning Goal 2: Pre-Assessment Pretest: Individual Pretest:
The student will i oral assessment • Each test given
explain the Questions: 5, 6, 7 individually to
historical students.
significance of • Test questions
holidays such as are read orally
Presidents’ Day and to students and a
evaluate why these scribe -is
celebrations are provided t:,
observed today. accommodate

developing
reading and
writing skills
and the two

I I I students with
IEP’s.

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Formative Tools: Writing Formative:
Assessment Prompt and scoring • Level of

rubric Support:
Criteria: The student Students with
describes when IEP’s may need
Presidents’ Day is additional
and why it is personal
celebrated. assistance on

activities, such
as readers or
scribes.

• Time: Students
with IEP’s may
need additional
time to complete
assignments.

® Input: Clear
instructions and
processes given
to accommodate
Mastery
learners.

Post Assessment Post Test: Post Test: (See
(Summative) Individual oral above adaptations

assessment for pretest)
Questions: 5, 6, 7

Learning Goal Assessments Format of Adaptations
Assessments

Learning Goal 3: Pre-Assessment Pretest: Individual Pretest:
The student will oral assessment • Each test given
evaluate the Questions: 4, 1 1, 12, individually to
historical 13 students.
significance of o Test questions
national symbols, are read orally
monuments, and to students and a
landmarks. scribe is

provided to
accommodate
developing
reading and
writing skills
and the two
students with
IEP’s.

4 V ximL1 W / l Vrli. . lvi L. 1 Oflila^J VC.

Assessment l Rushmore 1 e Level of

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Post Assessment
(Sulmmati v c)

presidents handout,
presidential coins
handout, Puzzle
Pieces handout
(identification of
national landmarks
and symbols).
Criteria: The
students recognize
the four presidents
on Mt. Rushmore
and key information
about each, as well
as the presidents
who are on major
currency, and
national symbols
and landmarks of
our country.

Post Test:
ii,uivluual via,

assessment
Questions: 4, 11, 12,
13

Support:
Students with
IEP’s may need
additional
personal
assistance on
activities, such
as readers or
scribes.

e Time: Students
with IEP’s may
need additional
time to complete
assignments.

® Input: Clear
instructions and
processes given
to accommodate
Mastery
learners. Many
visual, engaging
activities, as
well as hands-on
learning
opportunites.

Post Test: (See
above adaptations
for pretest)

(See Appendix A for Pre/Posttest Assessment) (See Appendix B for Answer Key)

In order to measure student growth and progress, the pretest and posttest were

exactly the same. The tests were given orally to students individually, with the teacher

recording student responses. Questions 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, and 14 align with learning goal

1; there are more questions that represented this goal as a result of its broadness.

Questions 5, 6, and 7 aligned with learning goal 2, and questions 4, 11, 12, and 14

correspond with learning goal 3. There were a variety of types of questions on both the

pretest and posttest. Questions 2 and 3 were selected response, in the form of multiple

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choice, asking students how a president is chosen and who can become a president.

Questions 8-10 and question 13 were selected response, in the form of matching, asking

students to match the presidents’ names with the coins they are on, and to match the Mt.

Rushmore presidents’ names with their pictures. There were also 7 constructed response

questions. Number I asks students to describe what a presidents is and what they do,

while number 4 asks students how many stars and stripes are on the flag. Questions 5, 6,

and 7 ask students to describe when Presidents’ Day is, why it is celebrated, and whose

February birthdays the holiday is based on. Questions 11 and 12 relate to identifying the

White House and the Statue of Liberty, as well as their locations. Question 14 is a

Performance Question, which requires students to compare and contrast Washington and

Lincoln. A 3×4 rubric was utilized for scoring the performance question.

There are a total of 14 points on the pre- and post-assessments. Each question has

the value of one point, regardless of its structure or number of parts. There were 7 points

ref fecling LG i, 3 points for LG2, and 4 points for LG3. In order for the students to nmeei

mastery for the overall test, they must score 11 points out of the possible 14, or 78.57%.

Mastery criteria for LG 1 is 6 out of 7 (85.7%); mastery for LG2 is 2 out of 3 (66.7%);

and mastery for LG3 is 3 out of 4 (75.0%).

A variety of assessment modes and methods will be incorporated into formative

assessments. Each day of the eight-day unit will consist of a new topic or concept; even

though concepts will build upon one another, it will be important to frequently

formatively assess student progress before moving on to new material. I plan on using

handouts that require students to recognize examples from nonexamples. As this is a

Kindei:gar ten class, a lot of assessment will be conducted on are individual basis, and

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there will be many opportunities to assess by observations , checklists , or anecdotal notes.

There will be independent and whole class activities that will be assessed , and additional

assistance and reinforcement may need to be provided before moving on . A review will

be given prior to the posttest and any misconceptions will be clarified.

Design for Instruction

There were 21 students that took the pre-assessment. None of these students met

the criteria for mastery . The highest grade on the pretest was 8 out of 14. The overall

class average was 2 . 9 out of the possible 14 points, or 21%. 6 students scored I out of

14, which was the lowest score . There were several students who scored 2’s, 3’s , or 4’s,

and one student who scored a 7. Only one student achieved mastery for LG 1, and the

average score for this goal was 2.4 out of 7 points, or 34 %. None of the students reached

mastery for LG2 or LG3 . The average score for LG2 was 0.24 out of 3 possible points,

or 8%, and the average score for LG3 was 0 . 38 out of 4 possible points , or 9.5%.

The results of Elie pretesi led to several conclusions. The students clearly do not

have a deep understanding of the concepts on the pretest , thus in-depth instruction will be

needed concerning all three learning goals. The unit will cover eight days, with a new

concept being introduced each day, while building on previously learned material. The

students collectively scored best on LG I questions ; however 34% is far from mastery.

They majority of the instruction , as reflected on the pre-assessment , will focus on LG1

because it is more broad than the other two goals . One child did reach mastery for this

goal, so concepts will be enhanced and new material will be covered to accommodate this

student.

(See Appendix C foi l detailed spveadsheet of student results on pretest.)

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Overview:

Day Lesson Title Instructional Addressed Assessments
Strategies/Activities Learning

Goal
Day 1 What is *Presidents’ Day Learning Writing Prompt (with

Presidents’ introductory video Goal 2 scoring rubric): When
Day? from United is Presidents’ Day?

Streaming Why do we celebrate
* Whole-group it?
discussion: why and
when is it
celebrated?

Day 2 What is a *Introduction: Read- Learning Classroom
President? aloud Teacher for Goal 1 observations (during

President discussion and
*Complete “What is completion of concept
a President?” map).
concept map as Writing Prompt (with
whole group, scoring rubric): If I
including roles and Were President I
responsibilities. Would…
* Whole-group
discussion of how a
president is elected.
*Ice cream election:
the class votes for
their favorite kind of
ice cream to
demonstrate the
election process.

Day 3 Abraham *Introduction: Read- Learning *”Young Abraham”
Lincoln aloud Just Like Goal 1 handout (students are

Abraham Lincoln read various facts and
and A Picture Book must circle ones that
ofAbraham Lincoln. apply to Lincoln).
*Whole-group *-Sequencing handout
discussion about key (students cut out
points in his life maior events in his
history and life and must put them
accomplishments. in order).
*”Do You Know *Construct a model of
Who’s On the Lincoln’s log cabin
Penny?” song. (using popsicle sticks
*Guest Speaker I on construction paper)
(dressed as Lincoln. j .,. ^`d _ ;acts thai

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presented his story they have learned.
to entire
Kindergarten).

Day 4 George *Introduction : Read – Learning *Construct a mini-
Washington aloud A Picture Goal I book of George

Book of George Washington (with key
Washington . facts about him).
*Whole-group * Handout (students
discussion of life place an X on pictures
history and that show things that
accomplishments . pertained to him).

*”Do You Know *Construct his “3-
Who’s on the corner hat” (when hat
Quarter?” song . is complete , they must

tell something they
learned about
Washington in order
to wear it).

Day 5 Comparing * Review of facts Learning * Handout (list of
and about Washington Goal I facts , students color
Contrasting and Lincoln ‘ s lives . whether it represents
Washington * Complete Venn Lincoln , Washington,
and Lincoln Diagram pocket or both).

chart as whole-group * Each student
(facts written on constructs puppets of
sentence strips). Washington and

Lincoln
(observation/anecdotal
notes ). Asa fact is
read , they must raise
the puppet that
corresponds with it
(may be Lincoln,
Washington, both, or
neither).
* Students may sort
the sentence strips
into the appropriate
pockets on the Vern

Diagram chart for
additional
reinforcement.

Day 6 Mount * Introduction : Learning * Observation and
Rushmore Mount Rushmore Goal 3 anecdotal notes during

video from United (also discussion.

L Streaming. Learning *Handout (A fact

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* Whole-class
discussion of history
of the monument , its
scale , and how it
was constructed .
*Reading from The
Mount Rushmore
Presidents big book
from Core
Knowledge.
*Introduction of the
4 presidents on the
monument.

Goal 1) about a president is
read and the student
must identify the
president by placing a
corresponding number
by it).

Day 7 A Deeper * Introduction : Read- Learning * Handout:
Look at aloud Thomas Goal 3 (also Presidential coins
Theodore Jefferson and Learning (students identify
Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt . Goal 1). which presidents are
and Thomas * Whole-class shown on common
Jefferson discussion about life coins).

history , interesting * Roleplay (anecdotal
facts , and notes/observations):
accomplishments , Students come up and
including the legend say a fact they learned
of the teddy bear . about either Roosevelt

or Jefferson (from
their point -of-view),
and the rest of the
class must decide
which one it
corresponds with.

Day 8 Symbols of *Flag video clip Learning * Handout: Pictures of
our Country from United Goal 3 the flag, the White

Streaming . House , the Statue of
*Statue of Liberty Liberty , and Mount
clip from United Rushmore are given.
streaming . The students must
*Discussion of identify the
history and monuments/symbols
significance . and color them
*Tour the White accurately and
House (show realistically.
pictures of White
House , including
those from personal

I I trip.) Discussion of ( I I
what living in the

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White House would
entail.

Activity One:

One activity that demonstrated a variety of instructional strategies/techniques

occurs on Day 2, in the lesson over what exactly a president is. These activities were

chosen because the unit will cover a number of important presidents who have impacted

our nation’s history. In order for students to understand the significance of these

presidents, they must first understand what a president is, including their roles and

responsibilities, and based on the results of their pre-assessments, the students have very

little understanding in this area . This set of activities correlates with LG 1. The book

Teacher for President will be read aloud, in which a student explains to a news station

why they feel their teacher would make a great president, because of the roles she fills

and the qualities she possesses. Based on the information from the book as well as

additional tactors, the students will complete a concept chart entitled “What is a

President?” as a whole-group. Then, the students will learn about how a president is

elected by the people of the United States who vote, and a mock election will be held,

voting for the class’s favorite kind of ice cream. This will model a simplified version of

the election process for the students. Finally, students will be assessed by completing the

writing prompt “If I were president, I would…” Students must consider actual roles and

responsibilities the president has when responding; and their answers will show whether

they truly grasp what the president does.

Activity Two:

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Another activity designed involves students comparing and contrasting Abraham

Lincoln and George Washington. Based on their pretests, the students have little

background knowledge about these two presidents, but it is very limited. The also have

not looked at similarities and differences between the two. These activities relate to LGI

as well, and provide a variety of hands-on activities for students. This lesson would

begin with review of important facts about the two presidents. Then, as a whole-group

the students would complete a Venn Diagram pocket chart. As the students present an

idea or fact, I will write it on a sentence strip and we will place it in the appropriate

column of the diagram. Then, students would complete a handout, in which a fact is read

and they must color to signify if it corresponds with Lincoln, Washington, or both.

Finally, additional assessment would be provided as students would construct a puppet of

Lincoln and Washington. When a fact is read, they must hold up the puppet that

corresponds; it may be about Washington, Lincoln, both, or neither. Anecdotal notes and

observations would rye utiiized. To provide additionai reinforcement, the students might

go to the Venn Diagram pocket chart as a center, and sort all of the sentence strip facts

into the appropriate column.

Activity Three:

A third activity that will be used, which correlates with LG3, occurs on Day 6 of

the lesson, which covers Mount Rushmore. Based on the pretest, the students have no

prior knowledge on this subject. The lesson would begin with a video clip from United

Streaming. This clip was chosen because it really shows the construction process of the

monument, as well as its scale. There is even one portion that shows one of the workers

scaling down one of the sculptures’ noses. A whole-group discussion will be conducted

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to review the history of the monument, as well as how it was constructed and why. We

will discuss how all of this hard work was done to honor these presidents, and what

exactly this means . Next, a big book about Mount Rushmore will be read, which gives

an overview of the four presidents who appear on it. This is great review of Lincoln and

Washington, and an introduction is provided of Roosevelt and Jefferson, who will be

covered more in depth on the following day. The students will be assessed by

observation and anecdotal notes during discussion. They will also be assessed by

completing a handout, which has pictures of the four presidents on Mount Rushmore. I

will read a few facts about a president and identify their name, then the students will

write the number I give them for that president beside their picture.

Technology will be greatly utilized for planning and implementing this unit. First

of all, i will use the Internet to research concepts that will be taught and find materials to

be used during instruction. I will also incorporate video clips into instruction; these tools

can demonstrate some concepts (such as the scale of monuments) visually. The videos

will be shown using a projector onto the Smart Board. The Smart Board will also be used

to show pictures of presidents, symbols, or landmarks.

Instructional Decision Makin

There are many times during teaching where one must alter their original plans to

meet the learning needs of ail students. The first instructional decision occurred during

Day 2 over what a president is. We were briefly discussing hov-1 our president is chosen,

how the people of the United States vote for and elect the president. We had a classroom

election over the group’s favorite kind of ice cream to model the process, and most of the

students seemed to be grasping the concept. However, at the end of our discussion, one

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student raised her hand and said, “I thought the president was picked by those little rooms

our mommies and daddies go in.” I asked her what she meant, and she said, “You know,

those little rooms our parents go in to pick the president.” The other students nodded

their heads, and signaled that they, too, knew about these “little rooms.” I realized that

she was talking about voting booths, and that even though I had explained that the

president was elected by votes, I had not explained the process of voting. We then had a

class discussion about how to vote, and who is eligible to vote. It is easy to assume that

our students have mastered some of these abstract concepts, but in this case, there was

confusion between how going in that “little room” meant that you had voted. Just as we

had put our heads down on our desks and secretly voted for our favorite ice cream, adults

vote privately as well in these booths. I explained to students that this would ensure that

everyone could vote for whom they truly thought was right for the job. After our

discussion, the students fully understood this concept.

I’he second instructional decision made occurred on Day 5, when comparing and

contrasting Abraham Lincoln and George Washington. We were working on completing

the Venn Diagram pocket chart, and I was calling on students to explain a fact that they

had learned and tell where it went on the chart. One student that I called on said,

“Washington and Lincoln were friends.” I asked the students, “Did Washington and

Lincoln live at the same time ‘ F to which they answered in unison , “Yes!- I realized that

this Concept had not been thoroughly explainer) during niter lessons on the two presidents.

The students’ ideas of “long ago” all fell into the same time period, and they thought that

Lincoln and Washington had lived at the same time. I explained to students that this was

not so; Lincoln was president several years after Washington had died, and although he

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greatly looked up to and admired Washington, the two had never met and therefore could

not have been friends. The students’ misconceptions were cleared up after that. A few

days earlier, when we had our Lincoln guest speaker, one of the students had asked,

“Why didn’t you bring Washington with you?” At the time, I hadn’t realized this was

such a misconception the whole class possessed, but after our discussion, it was cleared

up.

Analysis of Learning

After completing both the pre- and post-assessments, several conclusions could be

drawn concerning student progress. Graph A (below) shows the results for the pretest

and posttest for the whole group, which consisted of 21 students.

Whole Group Results

Number of
Correct

Responses

I
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U

Student Number

A

n Pretest

n Posttest

(See Appendix C and D for detailed spreadsheet of student scores on pretest and
posttest.)
None of the students reached mastery on the pretest; however, on the posttest 19 students

met mastery, or 90% of the whole group. Two of the students (Students H and S) did not

meet mastery, or 10% of the class. All students except one showed significant growth on

the posttest. The average student score for the pretest was a 2.9 out of the possible 14

points, or 21 %. The average student score for the posttest was 11.52 out of 14 points, or

21

WKU 9014

82%. This means that the students scored an average of 8.62 points higher on the

posttest, or improved by 61%. There were only 58 correct responses out of the possible

294 on the pretest, while on the posttest there were 242. The range of the pretest (the

highest score of 8 minus the lowest score of a 0) was 8. The range of the posttest (14-5)

was 9.

Graph B (below) shows whole group results for the pretest and posttest for LG 1.

Whole Group- LG1

6

5
Number of 4
Correct

Responses

IIIIIIIIIII

3

2

1

A B C D E F G H I 1 K L M N O P Q R S T U

Student

B

n Pretest

n Posttest

Only one student reached mastery of LG 1 on the pretest; however, on the posttest 17

students, or 81% of the whole group, met mastery. All of the students made progress on

this goal. The average student score for LG1 on the pretest was 2.19 out of 7 points, or

31 %. The average student score for LG 1 on the posttest was 6.29, or 90%. This means

that the students scored an average of 4.1 points higher on the posttest, or improved by

58.6%.

Graph C (below) shows whole group results for the pretest and posttest for LG2.

22

WKU 9014

Whole Group- LG2
3

Number of
Correct

Responses

2

1

0

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U

Student

C

n Pretest

n Posttest

None of the students reached mastery on the pretest for LG2; however, on the posttest 20

students, or 95.2%, met mastery. All of the students made progress on this goal. The

average student score for LG2 on the pretest was 0.24 out of 3 points, or 0.08%. The

average student score for LG2 on the posttest was 2.67, or 89%. This means that the

students scored an average of 2.43 points higher on the posttest, or improved by 81 %.

Graph D (below) shows whole group results for the pretest and posttest for LG3.

Whole Group- LG3
4

3
Number of
Correct 2

Responses

I

1

0

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N 0 P Q R S T U

Students

D

n Pretest

n Posttest

None of the students reached mastery on the pretest for LG3; however, on the posttest 14

students, or 66.67%, met mastery. All of the students made progress on this goal. The

average student score for LG3 on the pretest was 0.33 out of 4 points, or 0.08%. The

average student score for LG3 on the posttest was 2.57, or 64.3%. This means that the

students scored an average of 2.24 points higher on the posttest, or improved by 56%.

23

WKU 9014

Students who had attended educational preschool were selected as a subgroup.

These students were chosen because the background knowledge they attained from

preschool might have a significant effect on their performance . Graph E (below) shows

subgroup results for the pretest and posttest for LG 1.

Subgroup- LG1

Number of
Correct

Responses

E

n Pretest

n Posttest

B I K M Q T

Students

The students in the subgroup had greatly varying scores on the pretest, ranging from a 1

to a 6. Only one student met mastery for this goal on the pretest; however, 5 of the 6

students, or 83.3%, in the subgroup met mastery for LGI on the posttest. All of the

students who had attended preschool made significant progress on this goal. The average

score for the subgroup for LG 1 on the pretest was 2.83 out of 7, or 40.4%, while on the

posttest it was 6.5, or 92.9%. This means that the subgroup students scored an average of

3.67 points, or 52.4%, higher on this goal on the posttest. Compared with the whole

group, students in the subgroup scored slightly higher on the pretest and posttest;

however, their growth on this goal increased by a slightly lower amount.

Students N and S were chosen to individually evaluate because they represent two

levels of performance, high and low. It is important to understand the learning of these

particular students because they represent how in a classroom you have students on

multiple levels; sometimes even, as in this case, from one extreme to the other.

24

WKU 9014

Regardless of their “level,” teachers are responsible for meeting the needs of all students

and teaching them important content.

On the pretest, Student N scored 4 out of 14, or a 28.8%; however, on the posttest

she scored 14 out of 14, or 100%. She did not master any of the learning goals on the

pretest, but mastered all 3 on the posttest. Her score improved by 10 points, or 71.2%.

Student S scored a I out of 14 on the pretest, or 7.1 %, and 8 out of 14 on the posttest, or

57%. He too did not master any of the learning goals on the pretest, but mastered LG2 on

the posttest. His score improved by 7 points, or 50%. Although both students showed

progress with this new material, their scores are very different. Student N is a high-

achieving student, while Student S often struggles. He is in special education classes for

a large part of the day, and lessons in this unit were designed to be especially engaging to

help keep his attention.

During formative assessments , Student N was almost always on track and greatly

participated in classroom discussion. Student S would frequently be off task, and his

attention would have to be regained. Also, instructions would have to be repeated for

Student S, and often he would have to redo assignments because he would rush through

them simply trying to get finished, even though he knew a lot of the material.

(See Appendix D for samples of Student N’s work)

(See Appendix E for samples of Student S ‘ s work)

Reflection and Se if-Evaiuation

The learning goal where my students were most successful was LG2. 95.2% of

the whole group met mastery criteria for this goal, significant growth considering none of

them tnact.prP # thic ^1 nn tk► ^ ,rPte” Thv efimrientc i r,^ nrn.rPr^_ their scores fnr th_ic goal

25

WKU 9014

by an average of 81%. The students had no prior knowledge on these concepts, including

the historical significance of Presidents’ Day. Their growth may have been a result of

engaging activities incorporated into this lesson, such as a video clip from United

Streaming, as well as the use of scaffolding. The remainder of the unit somewhat built

upon this goal.

The learning goal where students were least successful was LG3. 66.67% of the

students met mastery for this goal on the posttest, which was significant growth since

none of them mastered it on the posttest. The students improved their performance in this

goal by an average of 56%, but this was the lowest percent increase among the goals.

This may have been a result of not having as many hands-on, extending activities, as well

as not going quite as in depth with this content. In the future, to improve student

performance, I would spend more time on this goal, perhaps extending my unit for

another day or so. We really just got to focus on identifying key symbols and

monuments and their historical significance. I think that if we spent more time on them

individually and had more hands-on experiences, the students would get a more in-depth

understanding and retain more of the information.

Throughout the process of completing this unit, I learned many valuable lessons.

This was great practice in building and developing assessments that are appropriate for

all students. Authentically assessing students is vital to student success and decision-

making, and 1 would like to continue to improve in this area. Aiso, New Teacher

Standards II and III (Creates/Maintains Learning Environment and Implements/Manages

Instruction) are two professional areas in which I would like to continue to grow in order

to imnrnve my gb0ity to fa104 t ztiidF; nt Iear!in° 06gf-mratinn of my rnnn erp-tinv

26

WKU 9014

teacher and other experienced teachers would be a great activity for improving my

performance in these areas, providing me with effective strategies that I can take to my

own classroom someday. Another activity that would be beneficial would be to attend

professional development in these areas. This would give me professional advice on how

to effectively achieve these standards, and it would build my professional resume.

27

WKU 9014

References

Adler, A. (1989). A picture book of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Scholastic.

Adler, A. (1989). A picture book of George Washington. New York: Scholastic.

Emerson, J. (2004). Theodore Roosevelt. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press.

National Parks: Mount Rushmore. Discovery Channel School (2005). Retrieved February

3, 2008, from unitedstreaming: http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com.

Ribke, S. (2003). Thomas Jefferson. New York: Children’s Press.

U. S. Celebrations. 100% Educational Videos (1998). Retrieved February 3, 2008, from

unitedstreaming : http://streaming . discoveryeducati on. corn.

U.S. Symbols. 100% Educational Videos (1998). Retrieved February 3, 2008, from

unitedstreaming: http://streaming .discoveryeducation.com.

Waber, B. (1964). Just like Abraham Lincoln. New York: Scholastic.

Winters, K. (2004). My teacher for president. New York: Scholastic.

28

Presidents Learning Inventory (Appendix A)

Name

Date

1. What is a president ? What do they do?

Multiple Choice
2. How is a president chosen?
A. It is based on the family they are born in to.
B. They are elected by the people of the United States.
C. One president picks the next one to replace him/her.

3. Who can be a president?
A. Only men
B. Only white men

C. Anyone– even you!

4. How many stripes are on the flag? How many stars?

5. Whe n is Presidents’ Day?

6. Why do we celebrate Presidents’ Day?

7. Whose February birthdays are the holiday based on?

Matching
Match the coin with the president that appears on it.

10.

A. George Washington

B. Abraham Lincoln

C. Thomas Jefferson

It This is a picture of the house where the president
lives. What is it called? What city is it located in?

12′. What is this monument called?

13. Match the Mount Rushmore president with their
picture.

Jefferson

Roosevelt

Lincoln

Washington

Perf ormance Question
14. a. Name 2 facts about Abraham Lincoln.

b. Name 2 facts about George Washington.
c. Tell 2 things Lincoln and Washington had in common.

Scorina Rubric
Criteria 1 2 3 4
a. Name 2 The student The student The student The student
facts about identifies identifies I identifies 2 identifies 2
Abraham unique fact unique fact unique facts unique facts
Lincoln. about Lincoln. about about about

Lincoln. Lincoln. Lincoln.
b. Name 2 The student The student The student The student
facts about identif ies 1 identifies 1 identifies 2 identifies 2
George unique fact unique fact unique facts unique facts
Washington. about about about about

Washington. Washington. Washington. Washington.
c. Tell 2 The student The student The student The student
things that does not describes 1 describes I describes 2
Washington provide thing that thing that things in
and Lincoln similarities Lincoln and Lincoln and which Lincoln
had in between the Washington Washington and
common. two presidents, had in had in Washington

or they provide common, common. had in
similarities, but common.
no unique

1 b^ Y1J^i _rkl’ h X1’4;8 i 1_6.x.

Presidents Learning Inventory- (Appendix B)

Name
Date

1. What is a president? What do they do?
t V^ eo’l’m^ ^d i s

find jobs, help our country during emergencies, make friends with afheG~

Multiple Choice
2. How is a president chosen?
A. It is based on the family they are born in to.

C. One president picks the next one to replace him/her.
3. Who can be a president?
A. Only men
B. Only white men

4. How many stripes are on the f lag? How many stars?

5. When is Presidents’ Day?
6. Why do we celebrate Presidents’ Day?

w e re Special.

7. Whose February birthdays are the holiday based on?
r Ldk t.Aituw L.6k ,vlkk ^J

Matching
Match the coin with the president that appears on it.

11. This is a picture of the house where the president
lives. What is it called ? What city is it located in?

>.c-se.

12. What is this monument called?–: .^Yue ^f L iberty

13. Match the Mount Rushmore president with their
picture.

Jefferson

Roosevel

Lincoln

Washington

Performance Question
14. a. Name 2 facts about Abraham Lincoln.

b. Name 2 facts about George Washington.
c. Tell 2 things Lincoln and Washington had in common.

Scorina Rubric
Criteria 1 2 3 4
a. Name 2 The student The student The student The student

facts about identifies I identifies I identifies 2 identifies 2

Abraham unique fact unique fact unique facts unique facts
Lincoln . about Lincoln . about about about

Lincoln. Lincoln . Lincoln.
b. Name 2 The student The student The student The student
facts about identifies 1 identifies 1 identifies 2 identifies 2
George unique fact unique fact unique facts unique facts
Washington . about about about about

Washin gton . Washin gton. Washin gton. Washin gton.

c. Tell 2 The student The student The student The student
things that does not describes 1 describes I describes 2
Washington provide thing that thing that things in
and Lincoln similarities Lincoln and Lincoln and which Lincoln
had in between the Washington Washington and
common . two presidents , had in had in Washington

or they provide common . common. had in
similarities , but common.
no unique

I I I I

Pretest Spreadsheet Annendix C
Student 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Total (T 1 G2 G3
A 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1/14 1/7 0/3 0/4
B 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2/14 2/7 0/3 0/4
C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1/14 1 /7 0/3 0/4
D 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1/14 1 /7 0/3 0/4
E 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2/14 1’7 0/3 0/4
F 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 3/14 _,i’7 0/3 0/4
G 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1/14 1/7 0/3 0/4
H 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2/14 2/7 0/3 0/4
1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2/14 1 /7 0/3 1 /4
J 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 4/14 3/7 0/3 1 /4
K 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 4/14 4/7 0/3 0/4
L 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 4/14 4/7 0/3 0/4
M 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 4/14 2/7 1/3 1/4
N 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 4/14 2/7 1/3 1/4
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1/14 1/7 0/3 0
P 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2/14 2/7 0/3 0
Q 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 8/14 6/7 1/3 1—-
R 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2/14 2/7 0/3 0
S 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 /1 4 1 /7 0/3 0-
T 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2/14 2/7 0/3 0
U 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 7/14 4/7 1 /3 2.4

Key:
Red= Goal 1 questions
Blue= Goal 2 questions
Green = Goal 3 questions

rosttes t reausneet A enatx v
Student 1 2 .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Total G 1 (12 G3
A 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12/14 6;7 3/3 3/4
B 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 11/14 7/7 3/3 1/4
C 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 12/14 7-7 3/3 2/4
D 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12/14 617 3/3 3/4
E 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 11 /14 7/7 2/3 2/4
F 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 11/14 6/7 3/3 2/4
G 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13/14 7/7 3/3 3/4
H 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 5/14 3/7 1/3 1/4
I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 0 1 1 1 13/14 77 3/3 3/4
J 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13/14 7/7 3/3 3/4
K 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11/14 6/7 2/3 3/4
L 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 11/14 6/7 2/3 3/4
M 1 I 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 11/14 5 7 3/3 3/4
N 1 1 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14/14 7/7 3/3 4/4
0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 11/14 5/7 2/3 4/4
P 1 I 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 11/14 7/7 2/3 2/4
Q I 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13/14 7/7 3/3 3/4
R 1 I 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13/14 7/7 3/3 3/4
S 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 8/14 5/7 3/3 0/4
T 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 13/14 7/7 3/3 3/4
U 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13/14 7/7 3/3 3/4

Key:
Red= Goal 1 questions
Blue= Goal 2 questions
Green= Goal 3 questions

Appendix E

Name Date

P uzzle P ieces

Statue of Liberty

The White House

American flag

Mount Rushmmo i 6′,

Directions : React the titles of the pictures, and ask children to draw a line from the title to the correct picture.

“.rrose: Th reinforce recognition of American symbols

Waste v a ; i d_ rb }e moist tr; eoa?’ r’3’j

t

Put an X on the pictures that show
things that George Washington did.

Skill: Classification

Head and trove this fact about George Was iingtonn.

. ———————————_….^.^–
Answers: 1, 4. ^- -..- . o S

i` i i

Presidents Learning Inventory

Name
Date

1. What is a president ? What do they do?

t T” Y F. t

Multiple Choice
2. How is a president chosen?
A. It is based on the family they are born in to.
B. They are elected by the people of the United States.
C. One president picks the next one to replace him/her.

3. Who can be a president?
A. Only men
B. Only white men
C.: Anyone- even you!

4., How many stripes are on the f lag? How many stars?

5.: When is Presidents’ Day?

6. Why do we celebrate Presidents’ Day?
r-t ,1Jy

7.’` Whose February birthdays are the holiday based on?

Matching
Match the coin with the president that appears on it.

A. George Washington

B. Abraham Lincoln

C. Thomas Jefferson

IThis is a picture of the house where the president
lives. What is it called? What city is it located in?

12. ? : What is this monument called?
.T.1 t

13. Match the Mount Rushmore president with their
picture.

Nf f erson–

oosevelt

Lincoln

Washington

Perf ormance Question
14 a. Name 2 facts about Abraham Lincoln.

b. Name 2 facts about George Washington.
c. Tell 2 things Lincoln and Washington had in common.

Scoring Rubric
Criteria 1 2 3 4
a. Name 2 The student The student The student The student
facts about identifies I identifies 1 identifies 2 identifies 2
Abraham unique fact unique fact unique facts unique facts
Lincoln. about Lincoln. about about about

,Lincoln. Lincoln. Lincoln.

b. Name 2 The student The student The student The student
facts about identifies I identifies 1 identifies 2 identifies 2
George unique .fact unique fact unique facts unique facts
Washington. abet about about about

Washington. Washington. Washington. Washington.
c. Tell 2 The student The student The student The student
things that does not describes 1 describes 1 describes 2
Washington provide thing that thing that things in
and Lincoln similarities Lincoln and Lincoln and which Lincoln
had in between the Washington Washington and
common. two presidents , had in had in Washington

or they provide common. common. had in
similarities , but common.
no unique
characteristics.

Presidents Learning Inventory

Name

Date

1. What is a president? What do they do?

^7-A! I,1 J:VV,i

I
“t

Pcs+-fesf

Multiple Choice
2, How is a president chosen?
A, It is based on the family they are born in to.

-A They are elected by the people of the United States.
C. One president picks the next one to replace him/her,

3. Who can be a president?
A. Only men
R. Only white men
Co. Anyone- even you!

4. Hotly many stripes are on the flag? How many stars?

. When is Presidents’ -Day?

6. Why do we celebrate Presidents bay?

7, Whose February birthdays 0 re the holiday based on?

Aikotchm,
Match the coin with the president, the appear on o no

Ca .

, Abraham Linc©O

“, . TltldC G4* L!! ^ f fj^r^s (ri5 rN iNfe k 1+l^lf &<^ f a^^n (̂ t^ro `i^ ( G1f^^ (̂ 7Cpr f^j5′

tld^ L^”l+^^l^ U [ B ^ al ti !`^14d ^ 1G – cx y

.._.i..Lr I–rr

13. Match the Mount Rushmore president with their
picture.

Jefferson

Roosevelt

Lincoln

Washington

Performance Question
14. a. Name 2 facts about Abraham Lincoln.

b. Name 2 facts about George Washington.
c. Tell 2 things Lincoln and Washington had in common.

Vl 9,) ^’I9Jd^ ‘116075 h C, Vii

Scorina Rubric
Criteria 1 2 3 4

a. Name 2 The student The student The student The s udent
facts about identifies I identifies I identifies 2 identifies 2
Abraham unique fact unique fact unique facts unique facts

Lincoln . about Lincoln . about about about
Lincoln . Lincoln . t cola.

b. Name 2 The student The student The student The student
facts about identifies 1 identifies I identifies 2 identifies 2
George unique fact unique fact unique facts unique facts

Washington . about about about ab Of
Washington . Washington . Washing ton . Vashington.

c. Tell 2 The student The student The student The student
things that does not describes 1 describes 1 describes 2
Washington provide thing that thing that things in
and Lincoln similarities Lincoln and Lincoln and which Lincoln
had in between the Washington Washington and
common . two presidents , had in had in Washington

or they provide common . common. had, in
similarities , but common.
no unique ,
characteristics. j j j

r

Name __ Date
Appendix F

P uzzle P ieces

The White Hous . vunt Rushmore

Q

c eDirectiools : Read the titles of the pictures, and ask children to draw a line fro the title to th coe rrect picture.
Purpose : To reinforce recognition of American symbois T

Putt an x on the pictures that show
thin,gs ghat George Washington did.

Skill: Classification

w -,crib
Raider

dead ^: nu it ace his iCCT abouT George Wcshinaton.

.————– ——..———– —————– –.._^
:answers: !, _. 4, 6, S

2 c

Presidents Learning Inventory

Name

Date

1. What is a president ? What do they do?

Multiple Choice
27-.How is a president chosen?
A. It is based on the family they are born in to.
B. They are elected by the people of the United States.
C. One president picks the next one to replace him/her.

3. Who can be a president?
A. Only men
B. Only white men
C.! Anyone- even you!

4. How many stripes are on the f lag? How many stars?

5. When is Presidents ‘ Day? E !’ y
I

6. Why do we celebrate Presidents’ Day?

7_ Whose February birthdays are the holiday based on?

Matching
Match the coin with the president that appears on it.

A. George Washington

B. Abraham Lincoln

C. Thomas Jefferson

11.- This is a picture of the house where the president
lives. What is it called? What city is it located in?

4o

12. What is this monument called?

13.. Match the Mount Rushmore president with their
picture.

SOf erson

Roosevelt

Xincoln

Washington

Performance Question
14. a. Name 2 facts about Abraham Lincoln.

b. Name 2 facts about George Washington.
c. Tell 2 things Lincoln and Washington had in common.

u1.

Scorina Rubric
Criteria 1 2 3 4
a. Name 2 The student The student The student The student
facts about identifies I identifies 1 identifies 2 identifies 2
Abraham unique fact unique fact unique facts unique facts
Lincoln. about Lincoln. about about about

Lincoln. Lincoln. Lincoln,
b. Name 2 The student The student The student The student
facts about identifies I identifies I identifies 2 identifies 2
George unique fact unique fact unique facts unique facts
Washington. about about about about

Washington. Washing ton. Washington. Washington.
c. Tell 2 The student The student The student The student
things that does not describes 1 describes 1 describes 2
Washington provide thing that thing that things in
and Lincoln similarities Lincoln and Lincoln and which Lincoln
had in between the Washington Washington and
common . two presidents, had in had in Washington

or they provide common. common. had in
similarities, but common.
no unique
characteristics.

Presidents Learning Inventory

Name
Date 2 -2-tT7′

1. “What is a president? What do they do?

Pus+t csF

Multi le Choice
` How is a president chosen?
A. It is based on the family they are born in to.
B. They are elected by the people of the United States.

(C)One president picks the next one to replace him/her.

3. Who can be a president?
A. Only men
R. Only white men

(C. A nyone- even you!

4. How many stripes are on the f log? How many stars?

5. When is Presidents ‘ Day? F_ ,oj, r^l

6. Why do we celebrate Presider t s’ Day?
¶ vl

7. Whose February birthdays are the holiday based on?

Match the coon with the

8.

[ore- sedert that appears an N%

A. George Was han9to

^R. Abrthmm UricnC,r

ILL

^I t @ ar p^^^wrarr^r ti>’ ‘^ ( athe > n”An r (̂ ^ I^apa,C F^S;
l :C. .J! y^>l.V l U U U `^

Yiveso ht°u^ is i t ca e^1? W na`i` c61 y 6s C Y i ocateo d 6′

4^ ^„ II /” G`i l 1

‘(13. Match the Mount Rushmore president with their
picture.

Jefferson
l

Roosevelt u

.Lincoln

Washington

Performance Question
14. a. Name 2 facts about Abraham Lincoln.

b. Name 2 facts about George Washington.
c. Tell 2 things Lincoln and Washington had in common

L-ik L
/^ ^n I(^ Ire it L1 ^^r QIOM’ P-1 A U V V 0/ I,A I l Ll At /I ]RA I I H A.Y 1 v v w.i –

b.Rid^ Ikorses, I^” Qresiden+
c. ^h ^m,bo^fi worKed

Scorina Rubric
Criteria 1 2 4
a. Name 2 The student The student The student The studen

z

facts about identifies I identifies 1 identifies 2 identifie ;:
Abraham unique fact unique fact unique facts uniqu acts
Lincoln. about Lincoln. about about a bb

Lincoln . Lincoln. ncoln.
b. Name 2 The student The student The student The student,,
facts about identifies I identifies I identifies 2 identifies 2
George unique fact unique fact unique facts unique; facts
Washington . about about about about

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Mississippi Valley State University

Teacher Work Sample

Teaching Process Four

Design for Instruction

TWS Standard

The teacher designs instruction for specific learning goals, student characteristics and needs, and learning contexts.


Task

In 3 pages Describe how you will design your unit instruction related to unit goals, students’ characteristics and needs, and the specific learning context in the following directions below. You will use the kindergarten social studies attachment to pull all information. You will also use the link to include intext citated information to include in the discussion below.

https://ess.com/blog/articles-7-strategies-to-improve-student-learning-in-the-classroom/


Directions

· Results of pre-assessment. After administrating the pre-assessment, analyze student performance relative to the learning goals. Depict the results of the pore-assessment in a format that allows you to find patterns of student performance.

· Unit overview. Provide an overview of your unit. Use a visual organizer such as a block plan or outline to make your unit plan clear. Include the topic or activity you are planning for each day/period. Also indicate the goal or goals (coded from your Learning Goals section) that you are addressing in each activity. Make sure that every goal is addressed by at least one activity and that every activity relates to at least one goal.

· Activities. Describe at least three-unit activities that reflect a variety of instructional strategies/techniques and explain why you are planning those specific activities. In your explanation for each activity, include:

(1) how the content relates to your instructional goal(s),

(2) how the activity stems from your pre-assessment information and

contextual factors,

(3) what materials/technology you will need to implement the activity, and

(4) how you plan to assess student learning during and/or following the activity

(i.e., formative assessment).

· Technology. Describe how you will use technology in your planning and/or instruction. If you do not plan to use any form of technology, provide your clear rationale for its omission.


Suggested Page Length:
3 pages plus including a visual organizer

Below are the three activities/Technology pulled from the kindergarten social studies attachment. You will go in and change wording so it won’t sound plagiarized.

Activity One: One activity that demonstrated a variety of instructional strategies/techniques occurs on Day 2, in the lesson over what exactly a president is. These activities were chosen because the unit will cover a number of important presidents who have impacted our nation’s history. In order for students to understand the significance of these presidents, they must first understand what a president is, including their roles and responsibilities, and based on the results of their pre-assessments, the students have very little understanding in this area. This set of activities correlates with LG 1. The book Teacher for President will be read aloud, in which a student explains to a news station why they feel their teacher would make a great president, because of the roles she fills and the qualities she possesses. Based on the information from the book as well as additional tactors, the students will complete a concept chart entitled “What is a President?” as a whole-group. Then, the students will learn about how a president is elected by the people of the United States who vote, and a mock election will be held, voting for the class’s favorite kind of ice cream. This will model a simplified version of the election process for the students. Finally, students will be assessed by completing the writing prompt “If I were president, I would…” Students must consider actual roles and responsibilities the president has when responding; and their answers will show whether they truly grasp what the president does.

Activity Two: Another activity designed involves students comparing and contrasting Abraham Lincoln and George Washington. Based on their pretests, the students have little background knowledge about these two presidents, but it is very limited. They also have not looked at similarities and differences between the two. These activities relate to LGI as well, and provide a variety of hands-on activities for students. This lesson would begin with review of important facts about the two presidents. Then, as a whole-group the students would complete a Venn Diagram pocket chart. As the students present an idea or fact, I will write it on a sentence strip and we will place it in the appropriate column of the diagram. Then, students would complete a handout, in which a fact is read and they must color to signify if it corresponds with Lincoln, Washington, or both. Finally, additional assessment would be provided as students would construct a puppet of Lincoln and Washington. When a fact is read, they must hold up the puppet that corresponds; it may be about Washington, Lincoln, both, or neither. Anecdotal notes and observations would rye utilized. To provide additional reinforcement, the students might go to the Venn Diagram pocket chart as a center, and sort all of the sentence strip facts into the appropriate column.

Activity Three: A third activity that will be used, which correlates with LG3, occurs on Day 6 of the lesson, which covers Mount Rushmore. Based on the pretest, the students have no prior knowledge on this subject. The lesson would begin with a video clip from United Streaming. This clip was chosen because it really shows the construction process of the monument, as well as its scale. There is even one portion that shows one of the workers scaling down one of the sculptures’ noses. A whole-group discussion will be conducted is to review the history of the monument, as well as how it was constructed and why. We will discuss how all of this hard work was done to honor these presidents, and what exactly this means. Next, a big book about Mount Rushmore will be read, which gives an overview of the four presidents who appear on it. This is great review of Lincoln and Washington, and an introduction is provided of Roosevelt and Jefferson, who will be covered more in depth on the following day. The students will be assessed by observation and anecdotal notes during discussion. They will also be assessed by completing a handout, which has pictures of the four presidents on Mount Rushmore. I will read a few facts about a president and identify their name, then the students will write the number I give them for that president beside their picture. Technology will be greatly utilized for planning and implementing this unit. First of all, i will use the Internet to research concepts that will be taught and find materials to be used during instruction. I will also incorporate video clips into instruction; these tools can demonstrate some concepts (such as the scale of monuments) visually. The videos will be shown using a projector onto the Smart Board. The Smart Board will also be used to show pictures of presidents, symbols, or landmarks.


Technology

Technology will be greatly utilized for planning and implementing this unit. First of all, i will use the Internet to research concepts that will be taught and find materials to be used during instruction. I will also incorporate video clips into instruction; these tools can demonstrate some concepts (such as the scale of monuments) visually. The videos will be shown using a projector onto the Smart Board. The Smart Board will also be used to show pictures of presidents, symbols, or landmarks.

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