Unit II Discussion QuestionCOLLAPSE In Lesson 2, in the 2.1 Introduction section, we discussed that there is a process to writing, but that there is no one, specific, start-to-finish process. Instead,

Get perfect grades by consistently using www.assignmentgeeks.org. Place your order and get a quality paper today. Take advantage of our current 20% discount by using the coupon code GET20


Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper

Unit II Discussion Question

In Lesson 2, in the 2.1 Introduction section, we discussed that there is a process to writing, but that there is no one, specific, start-to-finish process. Instead, the process is cyclical as we learned throughout the lesson. Additionally, you learned that it is important to understand yourself as a writer and that you have your own process.Please respond to this prompt by reflecting upon your own writing process. You may choose to use the guiding questions/prompts below as a way to begin your reflection; however, you do not have to address all of the questions. The objective of this reflection is to become better acquainted with the process that you go through when writing.

  • Recalling the last correspondence that you wrote, what was your process? For example, if the last correspondence you wrote was an email, what was your process in writing that email?
  • Do you approach each academic writing assignment in the same way?
  • What are your feelings about writing? Have you always had these feelings?
  • Do you have the same feelings about all writing or just writing for which you will receive a grade?
  • Do you begin by gathering your thoughts or by writing down everything you know?
  • Do you always follow the same process every time you write, or does your process seem to change depending upon what you are writing?
  • How does your process change (if at all) between writing prepared for work versus writing prepared for your academics?
  • What is your best outline of your process for an essay?
  • Did you find any of the materials in Unit II about process particularly helpful or inspirational? Why?
  • Did you find the notion of “invention” as a canon of rhetoric to be interesting or productive? Why?
  • What was your process for writing this reflection?

Remember that this is a piece of reflective writing, and while we tend to consider reflective writing to be about “how far we have come,” it is not necessary for that to be the case. Looking in the mirror at our reflection is not an act about the passage of time or about growth; it is about being able to see ourselves where before we could not. So remember to be kind to yourself. You are a beginning writer, and this is an exercise about discovering who you are as a writer so that we can work together to build who you will be.

Unit Three Discussion Board

So far in our course, we have discussed academic writing in depth, and with this unit, you have written (or are currently writing) your first essay. How do you feel about your progress? Do you feel that you are mastering the skills of academic writing? To that end, how do you feel about your essay? Did you discover anything by going through the process of writing the essay? Is there anything that you would like to share with your course mates? Of course, not all comparative exercises are successful. Do you feel that yours was? Did you learn something, or do you feel that you may have even taught the reader something? Reflect upon your experience so far in the course.

Unit II Discussion QuestionCOLLAPSE In Lesson 2, in the 2.1 Introduction section, we discussed that there is a process to writing, but that there is no one, specific, start-to-finish process. Instead,
Adobe Captivate Slide 1 – Unit II Lesson1 What is the Writing Situation? Text Captions: What is the Writing Situation? Unit II – Lesson 1 Slide 2 – Introduction Text Captions: Introduction In Unit I, we discussed audience awareness, genre, and academic writing. In our discussions of genre, we examined the ways in which different groups of people in different spheres of influence—private, public, business, and academic—employ various conventions in the forms and content of a given piece of writing and that readers (audiences) have certain expectations. These conventions and expectations help us shape what we know about genres, even though genres are fluid, meaning that they are constantly being tested and are often changing. Looking back (Stockimages, 2013) Slide 3 – The Writing Situation Text Captions: The Writing Situation… In Unit II, we will discuss a few other aspects of writing that will help you to better understand the academic essay—starting with the writing situation. Understanding the writing situation is akin to understanding the genre in which you are writing and knowing the audience to whom you are writing. However, fully grasping the writing situation (what is sometimes called the rhetorical situation) means that you have a fuller understanding of the context surrounding what you are being asked to write. Having a fuller understanding of the writing situation allows you to better address the writing assignment and to fulfill all expectations, the ones that are stated and unstated. ESSAY Context Context Context Context Context Context Slide 4 – Holistic Situation Text Captions: Holistic Situation… Not all writing is the same, as we know from our discussions of genre. In order to know how best to meet the expectations of the situation we are in, we must better understand the holistic situation. Writers often ask themselves a series of questions in order to better ascertain the holistic writing situation. Click anywhere on the question mark to view questions you should ask yourself when approaching any assignment within the context of this course and other courses at CSU. Remember, we are writing academic essays for this course, but the same process can be applied to other writing situations outside of EH 1010 as well. Click here Slide 5 – Questions Text Captions: Questions to Ask Yourself Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] Who is the audience? What is the genre? What is the purpose? What is considered a valid source of information? What is the required length of the document? What is the deadline? Slide 6 – Writing Situation Text Captions: The Writing Situation… The answer to each of these questions provides important information that helps shape how you will write. The following slides will address each of these questions in more detail. Slide 7 – Who is the Audience? Text Captions: Who is the Audience? As we discussed in Unit I, Lesson 1: “What Is Audience Awareness?” your professor is your most direct audience, so you always want to satisfy him or her first. However, your professor will sometimes expect more from you. In EH 1010, your professor will expect that you will assume or imagine a much larger audience than one single person. In the section “Imagining an Audience,” we discussed how you could imagine an audience for every piece of writing you complete. The “Introduction” of Lesson 6 in Unit I also discusses your audience for this course in a more detailed sense. You might want to revisit these sections to help you think about your audience. Slide 8 – What is the Genre? Text Captions: What is the Genre? Throughout the lessons in Unit I, we discussed ways to understand genres. In the three-part series on genre in Lessons 2, 3, and 4, we discussed the general principles of how genres fulfill conventions through structure, style, and content. In Lesson 2, we looked at genre in general. In Lesson 3, we examined public and business genres. In Lesson 4, we considered academic genres, which led us into a deeper understanding of academic writing. (Dominici, 2011) Slide 9 – What is the Purpose? Text Captions: What is the Purpose? Oftentimes, on the assignment sheet, the instructor will make the purpose of the assignment clear to you. However, if the purpose is not clear, you should consider what your purpose is before you begin. Why is it so important to determine the purpose? Here are a few reasons: Reason 1 Reason 1 Reason 1 Reason 2 Reason 2 Reason 2 Reason 3 Reason 3 Reason 3 Click on each reason to learn more. Slide 10 – Purpose: Reason 1 Text Captions: Determining the purpose… Understanding the purpose helps you to plan, organize, and then execute an essay that fulfills the assignment characteristics. Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] Reason 1 Slide 11 – Purpose: Reason 2 Text Captions: Determining the purpose… Determining the purpose helps you stay on track while completing the assignment and reminds you of the goals of the assignment. Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] Reason 2 Slide 12 – Purpose: Reason 3 Text Captions: Determining the purpose… Knowing and understanding the purpose helps you to evaluate if you have completed the assignment correctly when you have finished your work. Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] Reason 3 Slide 13 – Valid Source Text Captions: What is Considered a Valid Source of Information? In many cases, your professor will assign you explicit instructions as to the kinds of source material that will be considered acceptable to use as support for your assertions. Usually, when we think about sources, there are a few divisions. One of the main divisions between kinds of sources is between academic sources and public sources. In both cases, sources can contain experts who have many years of experience dealing with the subject matter and who have performed hours of research. However, there are some profound differences. Click here to see the differences. Slide 14 – Differences Text Captions: Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] For most of your assignments here at CSU, as in most universities, you will be expected to use academic sources because they are considered the most reliable and most accurate sources of information. Slide 15 – Video: Sources of Information Text Captions: Use the controls in the bar below to play the video. Slide 16 – Required Length Text Captions: What is the Required Length of the Document? When we discussed genre in Unit I, we discussed the importance of adhering to conventions. Oftentimes, particular genres will have conventions that include expected length and development. Sometimes, this is related to the kinds of elements, like details or descriptions (or the lack of these), that should be included. A memorandum (or memo) is a business writing genre that values brevity over all else. Obviously, then, the memo stresses that key information should be conveyed to the reader in the most direct language possible. Memos are meant to be scanned, not read carefully. Interoffice emails carry on this same tradition, so if you work in an office in which people email each other continuously all day, you may experience this same need for maximizing efficiency with language. (Thomsen, 2009) Slide 17 – Required Length Text Captions: Required Length of the Document… These types of conventions affect the length of your documents. As you learn the conventions of each genre in your courses, your instructors will ask that you model your writing after these conventions by assigning you a specific range of words (e.g., 100-200 words) or a page count (2-3 pages). It is important that you observe these requirements carefully. You certainly do not want to fall below the minimum allotment because then you will not be satisfying the requirements of the assignment. However, it can be equally as important for you not to go beyond the limit. As in the case of the memo, particular genres and forms call for specific devices. If you go beyond 200 words, for example, in a certain assignment, you may feel that you are going above and beyond, but it may have been the case that the instructor was teaching you to work within the confines of the 200-word limit. Therefore, observing word limits is of the utmost importance, even when it can seem like one of the more trivial elements of the assignment. Slide 18 – Deadline Text Captions: What is the Deadline? Of course, we all know that the deadline for an assignment is important! If you do not meet the deadline, then you will incur a penalty for submitting late, or if you submit too late in a term course, you may not be able to earn credit at all. In the business world, not meeting a deadline is a professional embarrassment and can cost you a client or cost your company in lost time and money. Beyond the repercussions for not meeting a deadline, there are other benefits to knowing a deadline. These benefits are where our focus will be. (Vuono, 2009) Slide 19 – Goal Text Captions: Deadline as Goal… You should consider a deadline to be a goal. Knowing what your goal is helps you to think about the steps you will need to take in order to reach that goal. Consider your first essay assignment for this course: In Unit III, you will be asked to write a comparison/contrast essay. Knowing that you have that assignment ahead of you, you could begin writing that paper with the limited in-depth knowledge you have on that mode of essay, but your chances for success are certainly not as good. Instead, knowing that the assignment is before you, you have the opportunity to plan and organize your strategy. Especially if you are in a term course, you have a structured schedule that will help you plan your days, but how you carry out your reading, studying, and preparing is up to you. (Miles, 2014) Slide 20 – Decrease Stress Text Captions: Decrease Stress… The most prepared among your classmates will likely be the most successful. It is proven that planning and action decrease stress, which helps you to perform better, retain material, and ultimately apply concepts. Meeting a deadline is all about making small deadlines each day for yourself. These efforts will also increase your sense of accomplishment and your confidence. deadline deadline deadline deadline SUCCESS! Slide 21 – Check for Understanding Text Captions: Check for Understanding: More. re. e stepping up to his goal [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/figure-stepping-up-to-his-goal-photo-p268634 The next section of this lesson provides you with questions to check your understanding of the material presented in the lesson. This is not for a grade. Directions: Choose your answer and select the “Submit” button. You can change your answer by selecting the “Clear” button—but only before you select “Submit.” You can read through the Check for Understanding section again (after having answered the questions) by using the Table of Contents navigation on the left side of this presentation to take you back to the first slide of the section. Then you would simply navigate through the section by using the “Next” button on each slide. In order to navigate a question slide with your keyboard, hit the Tab key after entering the slide and then the up and down arrow keys to move among the answer choices. Hit the Enter key after your answer is chosen. Tab to get to other buttons. Hit ‘y’ to move to the next slide. Slide 22 – Check for Understanding Text Captions: Check for Understanding: True/False The writing situation is the situation you are in when you have to write something. A) True B) False Correct (It is the context surrounding what you are being asked to write.) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (It is the context surrounding what you are being asked to write.) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 1 of 4 Slide 23 – Check For Understanding 2 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice Which of the following is NOT one of the questions you should ask when considering the writing situation? A) Who is the audience? B) What is the genre? C) What is the proposal? D) What is considered a valid source of information? E) What is the required length of the document? F) What is the deadline? Correct – (What is the purpose?) Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (What is the proposal?) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 2 of 4 Slide 24 – Check for Understanding 3 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: True/False Understanding the purpose helps you to understand why the instructor thinks the assignment is important. A) True B) False Correct – (It helps to plan, organize, and execute an essay.) Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (It helps to plan, organize, and execute an essay.) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 3 of 4 Slide 25 – Check for Understanding 4 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: True/False Page counts and word limits are requirements of the assignment and should be strictly observed, including not writing over the ranges provided. A) True B) False Correct (Consider these requirements to be the foundations of the assignment.) Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (Consider these requirements to be the foundations of the assignment.) Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 4 of 4 Slide 26 – Review Text Captions: Review – Part 1 For the purposes of our course, the writing situation will include the following questions: Who is the audience? What is the genre? What is the purpose? What is considered a valid source of information? What is the required length of the document? What is the deadline? The writing situation is… The writing situation is the context surrounding what you are being asked to write. Select each item to learn more. Slide 27 – Review Text Captions: Review – Part 2 Not all types of source information are the same… Not all types of source information are the same; that is why it is key to know the difference between academic sources and public sources. Academic sources are written by professionals in the field; for a specific, trained audience; in a technical language; with methodical citations; and using conventional formatting. Public sources are written by professional writers; for general readers; in an accessible language; with attribution, but rarely with citations. Understanding an assignment’s purpose… Understanding an assignment’s purpose can help you with planning, tracking progress, and evaluating success before submission. Select each item to learn more. Slide 28 – Review Text Captions: Review – Part 3 Deadlines are… Deadlines are sometimes challenging, but they can present us with opportunities for organization and goal planning. And, don’t forget to review… Unit I, 1.3, and Unit I, 6.1, to help you think about audience awareness. Unit I, Lessons 2, 3, and 4, to help you think about genre. The length of a document… The length of a document is often key to its genre, so all length ranges should be adhered to strictly. Select each item to learn more. Slide 29 – The End Text Captions: This concludes the material for the lesson. End The Slide 30 – References Text Captions: References… Dominici, D. C. (2011). 3d man with questions mark [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Ideas_and_decision_m_g409-3d_Man_With_Questions_Mark_p60167.html Miles, S. (2014). Time to plan means aspire goals and target [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/time-to-plan-means-aspire-goals-and-target-photo-p288925 Stockimages. (2013). African primary girl showing the way to her classroom [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Gestures_g185-African_Primary_Girl_Showing_The_Way_To_Her_Classroom_p155012.html Thomsen, R. (2009). Folding ruler [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Office_and_stationer_g145-Folding_Ruler_p4882.html Vuono, S. (2009). Time [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Timepieces_g190-Time_p10665.html Page 30 of 30
Unit II Discussion QuestionCOLLAPSE In Lesson 2, in the 2.1 Introduction section, we discussed that there is a process to writing, but that there is no one, specific, start-to-finish process. Instead,
Adobe Captivate Slide 1 – Unit II Lesson 2 Writing as a Process Text Captions: Writing as a Process Unit II – Lesson 2 Slide 2 – Introduction Text Captions: Introduction The act of writing is often described as a process rather than as one action. In this way, writing is not simply a thing that you accomplish by sitting down at a desk and doing it. Instead, it is something that is accomplished through steps that are often recursive, making up a process that constitutes a piece of work that has often been revisited in several different ways. This process is part of the reason that professional writers call writing “the craft” because to truly master writing is to understand the process itself intimately. Uh, hey, Essay. Ready for another visit? (Serge Bertasius Photography, 2015) Note: There is red text in this lesson. Please access the script for this lesson if you need to see a black and white version. Slide 3 – The Process Text Captions: The Process… In this lesson, we will discuss the process of writing. Unlike some other textbooks that would teach one specific process, this presentation will provide you with information about the process of writing. Then as you better understand the process of writing and you better understand yourself as a writer, you can begin to fashion your specific writing process. The truth is that as much as students in a writing course could learn about a writing process, each student can only apply that process according to what works for his or her own learning style. The most important points here are that you are able to take away a better understanding of yourself as a writer and that you will have a better understanding of your own writing process. What style works best for me? Slide 4 – Reading the Assignment Text Captions: Reading the Assignment… We know from the previous lesson, Lesson 1 (Unit II), that understanding the writing situation is imperative to understanding how best to begin writing, so we know that reading the assignment sheet is very important in understanding the writing situation. The assignment often includes all of the relevant details that we seek about the audience, genre, purpose, valid sources, required length, and deadline. Even if some of these aspects are only implied, they should be available on the assignment sheet or in the lesson itself. (Ambro, 2012) Slide 5 – Seek Help Text Captions: Seek Help… Success Center’s Writing Center 1.877.875.0533 [email protected] If the aspects (audience, genre, purpose, valid sources, required length, and deadline) are not available, then reading the assignment (and reading it early on) will help you to know what questions you need to ask of your support network: the Success Center or, of course, your professor. Remember the importance of reading over all of the details of the assignment before you approach a writing specialist or a professor. (Stockimages, 2013) Slide 6 – Five Canons Text Captions: The Five Canons of Rhetoric… In ancient times, the Greeks studied rhetoric, or the discipline of eloquent speaking and argumentation. For the Greeks and for the Romans who followed them, rhetoric was an ethical calling because it was bound to civics and the imperative that each citizen had to speak about a right or wrong he or she witnessed occurring within the city-state. Today, we might think of rhetoric in terms of social justice, politics, social commentary, advocacy, pundits, leaders of all kinds, etc. While we cannot fully understand or appreciate the Greek or Roman mind of ancient times and how they loved their city-state, we can understand the love for one’s nation, a desire to promote heroes who have died, and a call to action when wrongs have been done to the vulnerable among us. When the rhetor was ready to write a speech, he or she would prepare by going through the five canons of rhetoric. (Idea go, 2011) Slide 7 – Five Canons Text Captions: Five Canons I II III IV V Invention the act of discovering what one will write about; what are the ideas Arrangement concerning the order or organization of a speech or piece of writing Style making artful choices that affect how the audience will consume the ideas Memory memorization of the speech and triggering the memory of the speech while performing it Delivery how the speech is given in the performative sense (linked to style) Select each object to learn more. Slide 8 – Five Canons Text Captions: The Five Canons of Rhetoric… While contemporary speechwriters might still follow the five canons, there are a few of these that we have left behind. Most notably, communication today has a textual component because paper and digital writing have become so inexpensive—technology that the ancients did not have at their disposal. Therefore, we do not concern ourselves with memory and delivery in the same way. You mean, I could have put this speech in an email? (Iosphere, 2014) Slide 9 – Core Components Text Captions: Core Components… However, the core components of what the ancients have to teach us is still here: invention, arrangement, and style, and we still employ these lessons as the cornerstones of Western writing practices. In our contemporary moment, we have renamed these components, giving them the names pre-writing, organization, and stylistics. We will learn about these concepts in the following presentation materials, but let’s add one more to these three to make four solid cornerstones to our foundation: revision. Pre-Writing Organization Stylistics Revision (Invention) (Arrangement) (Style) (Rawich, 2013) Slide 10 – Revision Text Captions: Revision… One of the ideas that the ancients understood about the five canons that is difficult for us to grasp is that they saw the canons as a kind of philosophical expression of thought and critical inquiry. If argumentation and ethics were part of the civic good, then every argument that was spoken in the senate was part of the health of the city-state, as was a speech given on a street corner. For the ancients, arguments and speeches were the ultimate expression of democracy—almost as important as voting. Revision is important because it allows for the process to begin anew. With the original five canons, speechwriters could move through the steps as they pleased, beginning again wherever they saw fit. Removing two of the five, however, causes a slight deficit, but by introducing the notion of revision, suddenly, there is room to move within the remaining steps. Revision Pre-Writing Organization Stylistics Pre-Writing Organization Revision Stylistics Slide 11 – Invention Text Captions: What is Invention? Invention is one of the best parts of the writing process because it is the freest. The word invention comes from the Latin word invenire, meaning “to find.” Through the act of invention, the writer finds the ideas, message, and even the means of shaping the message. The ancient Greeks taught what were called the “common places,” topoi, ideas that were supposed to be known to all Greeks. Some of these we still use: comparison and contrast, cause and effect, appeals to logic (logos) and emotion (pathos), or the use of someone’s character to persuade (ethos). These are certainly not all of the topoi, there are hundreds, but we can begin to think about these as the places where these ancients started, and where we can begin to think about our writing as well. (Master Isolated Images, 2013) Slide 12 – Comparison Text Captions: Imagining Comparisons… Imagine for just a moment that you have been asked to begin a comparison-contrast essay (like the one that you will be writing in Unit III). Even without all of the preparation that you will receive in Unit III to help you write that essay, you could still sit down right now and think about the ways that we, as consumers, for example, compare and contrast the products we buy each day. How might you compare and contrast two of the leading smartphones or two of the leading tablets? How do you begin comparing products when you purchase a big-ticket item? Do you think about quality, dependability, brand name, reviews, options, personalization options, longevity, or durability? All of these elements could become points for your essay, and they are all part of the process of invention. (Miles, 2013) Slide 13 – Video: What is Invention? Text Captions: Use the controls in the bar below to play the video. Slide 14 – Check for Understanding Text Captions: Check for Understanding: More. re. e stepping up to his goal [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/figure-stepping-up-to-his-goal-photo-p268634 The next section of this lesson provides you with questions to check your understanding of the material presented in the lesson. This is not for a grade. Directions: Choose your answer and select the “Submit” button. You can change your answer by selecting the “Clear” button—but only before you select “Submit.” You can read through the Check for Understanding section again (after having answered the questions) by using the Table of Contents navigation on the left side of this presentation to take you back to the first slide of the section. Then you would simply navigate through the section by using the “Next” button on each slide. In order to navigate a question slide with your keyboard, hit the Tab key after entering the slide and then the up and down arrow keys to move among the answer choices. Hit the Enter key after your answer is chosen. Tab to get to other buttons. Hit ‘y’ to move to the next slide. Slide 15 – Check for Understanding Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Fill-In-The-Blank Complete the sentence below by filling in the blanks. The act of writing is often described as a process rather than as one action . Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (process, action) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 1 of 5 Slide 16 – Check for Understanding 2 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: True/False The process of writing is linear, not recursive. A) True B) False Correct (It is recursive.) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (It is recursive.) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 2 of 5 Slide 17 – Check for Understanding 3 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: True/False There is only one version of the writing process. A) True B) False Correct (Writing is a process specific to the writer.) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (Writing is a process specific to the writer.) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 3 of 5 Slide 18 – Check for Understanding 4 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice Which of the following is NOT one of the five canons of rhetoric? A) Invitation B) Arrangement C) Style D) Memory E) Delivery Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (Invitation) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 4 of 5 Slide 19 – Check for Understanding 5 Text Captions: True/False Check for Understanding: The word invention comes from the Latin word invenire, meaning “to find.” A) True B) False Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 5 of 5 Slide 20 – Review Text Captions: Review Part 1 The process of writing is… The process of writing is recursive, not linear. It is essential that you gain an understanding of your writing process… It is essential that you gain an understanding of your writing process, which is unique to your style of working and writing. The act of writing is often described… The act of writing is often described as a process rather than as an action. Select each item to learn more. Slide 21 – Review Text Captions: Review Part 2 The word invention comes from… The word invention comes from the Latin word invenire, meaning “to find.” Through the act of invention, the writer finds the ideas, message, and even the means of shaping the message. The five canons of rhetoric are… The five canons of rhetoric are invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery. Select each item to learn more. Slide 22 – The End Text Captions: This concludes the material for the lesson. End The Slide 23 – References Text Captions: References… Ambro. (2012). Confused teenage girl [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Learning_g376-Confused_Teenage_Girl_p103861.html Idea go. (2011). Columns [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Other_architecture_g299-Columns_p30413.html Iosphere. (2014). Cartoon businessman talking on podium [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/cartoon-businessman-talking-on-podium-photo-p261899 Master Isolated Images. (2013). Figure thinking with idea bulb [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Ideas_and_decision_m_g409-Figure_Thinking_With_Idea_Bulb_p152865.html Miles, S. (2013). Best price on smartphone showing online discounts [Image]. Free Digital Photos. Retrieved http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Retail_and_sales_g195-Best_Price_On_Smartphone_Showing_Online_Discounts_p142053.html Rawich. (2013). Stone brick wall [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/stone-brick-wall-photo-p200795 Serge Bertasius Photography. (2015). Curious cute baby boy looking through ajar door [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/curious-cute-baby-boy-looking-through-ajar-door-photo-p317772 Stockimages. (2013). Call centre executive working on computer [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/call-centre-executive-working-on-computer-photo-p208205 Page 23 of 23
Unit II Discussion QuestionCOLLAPSE In Lesson 2, in the 2.1 Introduction section, we discussed that there is a process to writing, but that there is no one, specific, start-to-finish process. Instead,
Adobe Captivate Slide 1 – Unit II Lesson 3 Beginning Your Writing Process Text Captions: Beginning Your Writing Process Unit II – Lesson 3 Slide 2 – Introduction Text Captions: Introduction Before you begin formal draft writing, you will need to do some planning. This planning can take many forms: gathering your thoughts together, freewriting, establishing what you know already, organizing your thoughts, etc. This is the informal drafting stage or the prewriting stage. During prewriting, you will allow yourself to focus on invention and arrangement. We will examine both of these canons of rhetoric, both of which we discussed in the previous Unit II, Lesson 2, in the form of outlining and prewriting, respectively. Slide 3 – Outlining Text Captions: Outlining: An outline is a tool. Like all tools, the act of outlining was created as a part of the writing process to help make the work easier. Certainly, we do not think of using a spatula to flip a grilled cheese in the skillet as an inconvenience to the sandwich’s cooking. But many writers, including those who are experienced writers, see the job of outlining as an obstacle that is keeping them from the “real” work of writing the essay. Is it Worth the Work? (Stoonn, 2013) Slide 4 – Organization Text Captions: The Value of Organization The truth of the matter is that the work that you put into outlining at the front end will save you frustration during the paper writing process. Recall for just a moment the scenario that you were asked to imagine about the comparison-contrast paper assignment (from “What Is Invention?” in Unit II Lesson 2). In that scenario, you might choose to compare and contrast two of the leading smartphones, and we brainstormed some ideas about what elements we might compare and contrast in such an essay. Consider for just a moment that you did write the paper right this second: Could you write it without taking down a few notes? Maybe a better question is this: Would you want to? Our brains are naturally logical; we seek that organization when we are making arguments and attempting to come to conclusions about ideas and concepts. If you did a bit of freewriting, which you will learn about in the next section, then you might have some notes, but those notes would increase their value to you if you could further organize them into an outline. Slide 5 – Individual Thoughts Text Captions: Individual Thoughts… An outline allows us to see our ideas as individual thoughts, and this benefit in turn allows us to expand and develop each of these individual thoughts to its greatest potential. Many beginning writers and student writers will feel blocked by their own writing, feeling as though they have said all there is to say about a subject, but oftentimes, they have not given themselves enough credit. In other words, what they need to do is to think about expanding their writing from the inside by looking at the individual ideas themselves. Expansion can also come from adding much-needed transitions, which we will discuss later on in this course. IDEA! IDEA! (Suphakit73, 2011) Slide 6 – Flexible Tool Text Captions: A Flexible Tool… at FreeDigitalPhotos.net DigitalPhotos.net iter…†One more idea that is important to consider is that you can outline at any level. What that means is that you can sketch out a quick outline for your entire paper, or you can outline the structure of each sentence in a paragraph. How detailed you want to go really depends on you and your writing style. Further, and most critically, the writing process is continuous and recursive , as we have discussed, which means that the outline is never set in stone. It is a flexible tool that works for you. Like a screwdriver that helps you turn the screw, it is there to help give you the leverage you need to do the job. It should not impede your progress, only pave the way for the ease of progress. Slide 7 – Prewriting Text Captions: Prewriting: There are several best practices and go-to methods that writers use to help them generate content when they want to begin writing. These methods are types of invention in their own right because they can help you generate ideas and content for your writing. Prewriting is a means of beginning the drafting process before the formal writing begins. Some consider this process to begin when you read the assignment sheet for the first time because you begin to think about the assignment, the topic you will choose, how you will construct the essay, and more. However, prewriting is more than just thinking about what you will do; prewriting involves actions, exercises, or methods for breaking through the barriers of writer’s block that can come when you are “not sure what to write about.” Finding the Method that Works Best for You Slide 8 – Stress Text Captions: Prewriting Lowers Stress… Prewriting often helps writers feel better about the assignment itself—academically and emotionally. Writing can be stressful! Prewriting allows writers to feel like they are in control of the writing process. By working their way through a prewriting exercise, they can build up some content and ideas that help them move forward into the formal drafting stage. Because prewriting strategies are linked to a writer’s process, he or she often gravitates towards one or two of the methods in particular. It is best that you allow yourself to find the prewriting strategies that work best for your writing process because not all strategies will work for you. Once you know the ones that best fit your writing personality, then you will be able to go to those methods and know them well when it is time to write on any occasion. Slide 9 – Prewriting Methods Text Captions: Common Prewriting Methods Brainstorming Brainstorming Brainstorming Mapping/ Clustering Mapping/ Clustering Mapping/ Clustering Freewriting Freewriting Freewriting Select each method to learn more. Slide 10 – Prewriting: Method 1 Text Captions: Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] Brainstorming Do not discriminate against any idea as you are brainstorming. Write down all ideas, and you can scratch out ideas that do not work for your project later. However, during the brainstorming process, you do not want to self-edit any ideas. Notes do not need to be in complete sentences: You can write in phrases and you can write down key terms. You may want to start columns to help you begin categorizing ideas, but the main focus of brainstorming is not organization. You always have the outline to help you organize ideas when you are finished. Do not feel as though you need to brainstorm all in one session. Write down your ideas when they come to you: after taking a shower, after the drive to work, or while waiting for the kids. Sometimes inspiration can strike us at the strangest times! Another thing to consider is that we live in a great time when we have the benefit of technology that is often with us at all times. Do not feel as though you need to brainstorm on paper either. Use a smartphone’s note function to take notes in a list. Text message or email yourself ideas when they strike you. You can even use the voice recorder on your phone or a free app to record your thoughts. Sometimes the best thoughts come to you faster than you can write them down. You do not have to work in isolation either. You can always ask a friend or loved one to help you record thoughts as you have a conversation about your ideas. Some of the greatest breakthroughs happen in conversation with others. Slide 11 – Prewriting: Method 2 Text Captions: Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] Mapping/Clustering Some people are visual learners and workers, meaning they have to be able to see what they are doing in a representative visual form before they can execute the work in the real world. These kinds of thinkers are people like architects and technicians of all kinds who understand by seeing rather than reading. For individuals like these, mapping (sometimes known as clustering) is more effective than brainstorming. Mapping is a marriage of both visual and textual elements to create a mainly visual representation of ideas. Slide 12 – Prewriting: Method 3 Text Captions: Close[X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] Freewriting Choose a form of writing that you are most comfortable with (e.g., handwriting or typing). Find a quiet space where you can write without being disturbed. You will write for ten minutes uninterrupted. This is one of the key elements of freewriting. You must write continuously, without stopping or pausing for more than a few seconds. The writing is often stream of consciousness, and that is fine. You may even write sentences like, “I am not sure what to write next,” so long as you continue to write for the entire allotted time. Once you have finished writing, read back over your work. Are there a few ideas there that you might develop? Slide 13 – Video: Advice About the Process Text Captions: Use the controls in the bar below to play the video. Slide 14 – Writing Process Cycle Text Captions: The Cycle of the Writing Process or Writing as a Process We have discussed a great deal in this presentation about the process of getting started. In the coming units, we will discuss other aspects of the writing process. One of the key aspects to remember is that the writing process is recursive, meaning that it is not a linear process. You do not follow the steps from start to finish. Instead, you may find that you need to stop in the middle of writing your formal draft and brainstorm or that the outline that you wrote needs some rethinking. These are normal experiences. Like any project, you want to be organized and methodical, but you will also need to make adjustments along the way. Recursive Process (Domdeen, 2011) Slide 15 – Video: Understanding Your Process Text Captions: Use the controls in the bar below to play the video. Slide 16 – Check for Understanding Text Captions: Check for Understanding: More. re. e stepping up to his goal [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/figure-stepping-up-to-his-goal-photo-p268634 The next section of this lesson provides you with questions to check your understanding of the material presented in the lesson. This is not for a grade. Directions: Choose your answer and select the “Submit” button. You can change your answer by selecting the “Clear” button—but only before you select “Submit.” You can read through the Check for Understanding section again (after having answered the questions) by using the Table of Contents navigation on the left side of this presentation to take you back to the first slide of the section. Then you would simply navigate through the section by using the “Next” button on each slide. In order to navigate a question slide with your keyboard, hit the Tab key after entering the slide and then the up and down arrow keys to move among the answer choices. Hit the Enter key after your answer is chosen. Tab to get to other buttons. Hit ‘y’ to move to the next slide. Slide 17 – Check for Understanding Text Captions: Check for Understanding: True/False Outlines are restrictive and should be avoided because once you write one, then you must follow it while in the formal drafting stage. A) True B) False Correct (Outlines should be seen as a guide – something that can be amended and altered throughout the writing process.) Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (Outlines should be seen as a guide – something that can be amended and altered throughout the writing process.) Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 1 of 6 Slide 18 – Check for Understanding 2 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: True/False While prewriting is good for beginning the drafting process, it will NOT help you with generating content. A) True B) False Correct (Prewriting is designed to help you generate and organize content.) Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (Prewriting is designed to help you generate and organize content.) Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 2 of 6 Slide 19 – Check for Understanding 3 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: True/False It is best that you allow yourself to find the prewriting strategies that work best for your writing process. A) True B) False Correct (There is no “one” writing process; use what works best for you.) Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (There is no “one” writing process; use what works best for you.) Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 3 of 6 Slide 20 – Check for Understanding 4 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice _____________ is an exercise that involves making lists; writing down key words, phrases, or sentences; and grouping concepts into categories. All ideas are written down without a filter. A) Brainstorming B) Mapping or clustering C) Freewriting Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (Brainstorming is correct.) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 4 of 6 Slide 21 – Check for Understanding 5 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice _______________ is a visual representation of ideas and the connections between those ideas. A) Brainstorming B) Mapping or clustering C) Freewriting Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (Mapping and Clustering is correct.) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 5 of 6 Slide 22 – Check for Understanding 6 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice _____________________ is a timed writing exercise wherein the writer does not stop writing about the topic during the allotted time. A) Brainstorming B) Mapping or clustering C) Freewriting Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (Freewriting is correct.) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 6 of 6 Slide 23 – Review Text Captions: Review Part 1 Outlines are organizational tools… Outlines are organizational tools that help us to structure ideas into logical essays. Outlines can always be… As with any part of the writing process, outlines can always be altered at any time in the writing process. An outline is a tool… An outline is a tool, so it should work for, not against, your progress. Prewriting is informal drafting… Prewriting is informal drafting to help you generate content that will help you begin formal drafting. Select each item to learn more. Slide 24 – Review Text Captions: Review Part 2 Prewriting involves… Prewriting involves actions, exercises, or methods for breaking through the barriers of writer’s block that can come when you are “not sure what to write about.” It is best that you allow yourself to find… It is best that you allow yourself to find the prewriting strategies that work best for your writing process. Prewriting is a means… Prewriting is a means of beginning the drafting process before the formal writing begins. Select each item to learn more. Slide 25 – Review Text Captions: Review Part 3 Mapping or clustering… Mapping or clustering is a visual representation of ideas and the connections between those ideas. Freewriting is… Freewriting is a timed writing exercise wherein the writer does not stop writing about the topic during the allotted time. Brainstorming is an exercise… Brainstorming is an exercise that involves making lists; writing down key words, phrases, or sentences; grouping concepts into categories. All ideas are written down without a filter.. Select each item to learn more. Slide 27 – The End Text Captions: This concludes the material for the lesson. End The Slide 28 – References Text Captions: References… Dondeen. (2011). Abstract spiral [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Blues_and_violets_g333-Abstract_Spiral_p40249.html Stoonn. (2013). Pan with handle and spade of frying pan [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Kitchen_g272-Pan_With_Handle_And_Spade_Of_Frying_Pan_p159817.html Suphakit73. (2011). Girl playing with her laptop [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Computing_g368-Girl_Playing_With_Her_Laptop_p31069.html Page 27 of 27
Unit II Discussion QuestionCOLLAPSE In Lesson 2, in the 2.1 Introduction section, we discussed that there is a process to writing, but that there is no one, specific, start-to-finish process. Instead,
Adobe Captivate Slide 1 – Unit II Lesson 4 Understanding Sentences Text Captions: Understanding Sentences Unit II – Lesson 4 Slide 2 – Introduction Text Captions: Introduction When we think about writing essays, the writing process can often seem overwhelming; however, for some student writers, just beginning at the sentence level can be difficult. Writing a good sentence can be hard work because sentences are all about structure and craft. Sometimes they are utilitarian; other times, they are about conveying a thought in just the right way to wrap up a paragraph. In this lesson, we will take a closer look at the sentence so that you can gain a better understanding of these building blocks of thought and how they are put together. Subject Verb Object Note: There is colored text in this lesson. Please see the transcript for a black and white version. Slide 3 – What is a Sentence? Text Captions: What is a Sentence? What is a sentence exactly? A sentence, known as an independent clause, • is a group of words that can stand on its own as a complete thought, • typically contains a subject and predicate, • conveys a statement, question, exclamation, or command; • and consists of at least one independent clause and sometimes one or more subordinate clauses. While not all of these attributes might be familiar to you right now, we will discuss many of them in the reading below, so you will have a greater grasp of the sentence by the time you reach the end of this lesson. As we will see below, a sentence can be many things, but in all of the roles that the sentence may play in your writing, it will most likely adhere to one structure throughout—the subject-verb-object (SVO) structure (more about this in further slides). Slide 4 – Basic Sentence Structure Text Captions: Basic Structure of English Sentences… Most of us who have ever seen any of the Star Wars movies are familiar with the character Yoda, who is famous for his inverted word order. This pattern is described as anastrophic, a rhetorical term for the inversion of the conventional word order. But what do we mean by “conventional” in this sense? We know that Yoda’s speech is not “conventional” and that it can sound funny to us and that it can be fun to say. Yet, even though the order of Yoda’s words is nonconventional, his meaning is still conveyed. Why is that? Always in motion is the future. — Yoda Slide 5 – SVO Structure Text Captions: SVO Structure… All languages have a basic sentence structure. That basic sentence structure dictates how all the complex parts of speech factor in to create the language itself. Not all languages have the same structure. The English language has influences from both Germanic and Latin roots, giving English what is called an SVO structure, meaning that the structure, at the most basic level, looks like the following: Subject verb object. The boy chases the dog. Slide 6 – SVO Structure Text Captions: SVO Structure… The subject of this sentence (the boy) does the action of the verb (chases) to the object (the dog). This is why Yoda’s speech still makes sense to us and still conveys a message, even though it sounds humorous and unconventional; Yoda’s speech follows a VOSV pattern. For example, “Chase the dog the boy does.” Slide 7 – SVO teaches Text Captions: SVO Structure Teaches… Understanding the basic SVO structure helps you to note a few things about the English language: Concept 1 Concept 1 Concept 1 Concept 2 Concept 2 Concept 2 Concept 3 Concept 3 Concept 3 Select each concept to learn more. Slide 8 – Concept 1 Text Captions: The Subject is Important! The dog was chased by the boy. The dog was chased. Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] Concept 1 The subject of the sentence is always more important than the object. This rule, along with what you have learned about anastrophic rhetoric (or Yoda’s speech), also helps you to understand why your professors will ask you to stay away from certain sentence constructions, like passive voice for example. Like Yoda’s speech, passive voice in your writing inverts the SVO structure so that the object of the sentence appears before the verb: OVS or OV. When a sentence is written in passive voice, the subject of the sentence is either deprioritized or the subject is completely removed and obscured. This sentence is written in active voice; the subject is in its conventional position before the verb and clearly stated: SVO. Example of passive voice: The dog was chased by the boy. The dog was chased. Slide 9 – Concept 2 Text Captions: Meaning is Revealed in Structure. Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] Concept 2 The SVO word order is rigid and unchanging, even though English does offer some sentence structures with alternatives. In a way, this rigidity is helpful to you as a beginning writer because you always know that no matter what construction you may be attempting, the basic construction of any English sentence always comes back to SVO. As a reader, this rule works the same way. If you are reading something that seems complicated to you, then consider for a moment that English is an SVO language. How can you simplify the sentence to derive the base meaning? How can you strip the sentence of its adjectives and adverbs, the descriptive words, and other unnecessary language to get to the heart of its meaning? When you are able to accomplish that move, then you will discover ways to locate meaning quickly and easily, and even prose that seemed daunting will be approachable and consumable. Slide 10 – Concept 3 Text Captions: A Complete Sentence is Recognizable. Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] Concept 3 You should always be able to recognize a complete sentence. Some students have difficulty recognizing an independent clause, which is a grammatical term for a group of words that can stand on its own as a complete thought or what we would also call a complete sentence. Understanding how to “see” a complete sentence will help you recognize different types of student constructions, such as the periodic sentence. Slide 11 – Terminology Text Captions: Sentence Structure Terminology Before we look at the types of sentences , let’s define a few terms that we will be using along the way: Clause: This is a group of words, consisting of a subject and a predicate, including a finite verb. A clause does not necessarily constitute a sentence. Independent clause (IC): This is a clause that can stand alone as a sentence. These will appear as brown text in the examples that follow. Subordinate element (SE): An SE is a coordinate or subordinate phrase or clause that modifies the independent clause or some part of it. These elements cannot stand alone as a sentence. These will appear as blue text in the examples below. It is not necessary that you can identify the exact type of the subordinate element, only that you can identify that it is not an IC and, therefore, is an SE. Coordinating conjunctions (CC): These conjunctions join together two ICs, along with a comma to form a compound sentence: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. Slide 12 – Sentence Constructions Text Captions: Sentence Constructions We already know that the English language is an SVO language. So how does that play out in the construction of sentences? Let’s look at definitions and examples of some of the most useful sentence constructions for composition students. Sentence Constructions 1. Simple Sentence 2. Compound Sentence 3. Complex Sentence – Periodic Sentence – Loose Sentence 4. Compound-Complex Sentence Slide 13 – Simple Sentence Text Captions: The Simple Sentence This construction is one that we have already discussed. The simple sentence is as basic as it gets: SVO. Subject verb object. The boy chases the dog. In this example, you see that the sentence follows the word order. There are no additional complexities, and there is only one independent clause (IC). Additionally, there is a subject of the sentence and a predicate, which is comprised of a verb and an object. However, the predicate can be as simple as just the verb itself. Essentially, the predicate is the part of a sentence that expresses what is said about the subject. Slide 14 – Compound Sentence Text Captions: For And Nor But Or Yet So The Compound Sentence A compound sentence is a sentence containing two or more independent clauses, usually joined by one or more coordinating conjunctions. No subordinate elements (SEs) are included in a compound sentence. The coordinating conjunctions are short words that connect two ICs together. There is an easy-to-remember acronym made from the first letter of each word—FANBOYS. With a comma and one of these words, you can combine any two ICs together. Remember that each of these coordinating conjunctions is an individual word with its own meaning, so you want to choose the right one. Therefore, you want to examine the relationship between the two ICs you are combining in order to determine which of the coordinating conjunctions (CC) best exemplifies their relationship. Slide 15 – Compound Examples Text Captions: For Example… BASIC CONSTRUCTION: IC, CC IC. Example 1 The boy chases the dog, and the cat watches them. Example 3 We have come here to claim this ground for our ancestors, yet we are not here to fight you. Example 2 The cat wants to play, but she would rather nap. Example 4 It’s going to be a while, so you might as well get comfortable. Example 5 We can go out to eat tonight, or we could order takeout. Slide 16 – Complex Sentence Text Captions: The Complex Sentence The complex sentence is defined as a sentence in which at least one IC and one SE are included in the sentence. Two kinds of complex sentences are the periodic sentence and the loose sentence. In the periodic sentence, the subordinate element (SE) appears at the beginning of the sentence, before the IC, and with a comma between the two. In the loose sentence, the SE appears at the end of the sentence, sometimes with and sometimes without a comma, depending upon the SE’s essentialness to the reading of the sentence. That’s so complex. Slide 17 – Periodic Sentence Text Captions: The Periodic Sentence The periodic sentence is used for effect. Sometimes, it is used to build suspense by withholding the IC of the sentence until after an SE can be delivered. Other times, a periodic sentence is used in order to qualify how the audience will read the IC by providing information via an SE before he or she gets to the IC. Either way you look at it, the periodic sentence is an SE presented before an IC, separated by a comma. The comma is placed at the beginning of the IC; there must always be a comma included before the IC in the periodic sentence; otherwise, there will be a comma omission error. CONSTRUCTION: SE, IC , Slide 18 – Periodic Examples Text Captions: For Example… PERIODIC CONSTRUCTION: SE, IC Example 1 While he was out at the store, I stayed home to clean. Example 2 Although there is much we know about the time period, historians are uncovering new details about the Civil War all the time. Example 3 Among the three available options, the second is the most promising one. Example 4 Once you have been on a Caribbean vacation, you will never want to go anywhere else in the world. Example 5 Even when I am down, you always know how to make me laugh. Slide 19 – Loose Sentence Text Captions: The Loose Sentence The loose sentence is similar to the periodic sentence; however, in the loose sentence, the subordinate element is located at the end of the sentence, after the independent clause. Including the comma in the sentence indicates to the reader that the SE is not essential to the reading of the sentence. You can almost think of it as a place where you might cut the end of the sentence off with a pair of scissors. If there is no comma, then the SE is necessary to the reading of the sentence and cannot be removed. So with the inclusion or exclusion of the comma, you control the meaning of the sentence. Notice, though, that not all of the sentences on the next slide allow for the information of the SE to be optional. In order for the content of the IC to communicate clearly and fully, the SE is necessary. Therefore, no option with a comma has been offered for all of the sentences. CONSTRUCTION: IC SE.~or~ IC, SE. Slide 20 – Loose Examples Text Captions: For Example… LOOSE CONSTRUCTION: IC SE.~or~IC, SE. Example 1 I stayed home to clean while he was out at the store. I stayed home to clean, while he was out at the store. Example 2 Historians are uncovering new details about the Civil War all the time although there is much we know about the time period. Historians are uncovering new details about the Civil War all the time, although there is much we know about the time period. Slide 21 – Loose Examples Text Captions: Examples Continued… LOOSE CONSTRUCTION: IC SE.~or~IC, SE. Example 3 The second is the most promising one among the three available options. Example 4 You will never want to go anywhere else in the world once you have been on a Caribbean vacation. Example 5 You always know how to make me laugh, even when I am down. You always know how to make me laugh even when I am down. Slide 22 – Compound-Complex Sentence Text Captions: The Compound-Complex Sentence The compound-complex sentence is a combination of the previous sentence constructions that we have discussed. A compound-complex sentence has at least two ICs and at least one SE. Like the compound sentence, the compound-complex sentence contains at least two ICs that are combined by a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). Like the complex sentence, at least one of these ICs has an SE either in the form of a periodic or loose sentence construction, meaning that it appears before or after the IC in the sentence. Compound AND Complex? Slide 23 – Compound Comples Examples Text Captions: For Example… Example 1: SE, IC, CC IC. When I think of all the great dinners we have had together, I always think of Marsha’s lemon custard, and I often wish I had asked her for the recipe. Example 2: IC SE, SE, CC IC. There are so many choices out there these days that I never know where to begin when I want to buy something, especially when it comes to electronics, but I’m always unsure of which reviews to trust. Example 2: IC SE, CC IC SE. I always think of Marsha’s lemon custard whenever I think of all of the great dinners we had together, yet I can never remember to ask her for the recipe even though we still talk often. Slide 24 – Video: 5 Sentence Constructions Text Captions: Use the controls in the bar below to play the video. Slide 25 – Check for Understanding Text Captions: Check for Understanding We love the lake. The pizza arrived cold. He collects old movies. Halloween scares me. The ring fits her. Label the underlined section as subject (S), verb (V), or object (O): O S V V O Select each blue rectangle to learn more. Slide 26 – Check for Understanding 2 Text Captions: We love the lake. The pizza arrived cold. Old movies are what he collects. I am scared by Halloween. The ring fits her. Which of the following are written in active voice (A), and which are written in passive voice (P)? A A P P A Further information about passive voice sentence examples follows on next slide. Check for Understanding Select each blue rectangle to learn more. Slide 27 – Passive Examples Explained Text Captions: Passive Voice Examples – Explained Old movies are what he collects. He collects old movies. The subject and object are inverted, a situation which results in a classic passive voice construction. I am scared by Halloween. Halloween scares me. Some writers would be tempted to invert the “I” pronoun and the true subject of the sentence“Halloween”because the pronoun is a person and Halloween is a thing. However, grammatically speaking, Halloween is the true subject of the sentence. Therefore, the first person pronoun “me” should take the object position. (Ammer, 2012) Slide 28 – Check for Understanding 3 Text Captions: I have always liked this type of soda. When I go on that trip. This year will be my parents’ 40th wedding anniversary. Although I have never been there myself. After nine days. Which of the following is an independent clause (IC) and which is a subordinate element (SE)? IC SE IC SE SE Check for Understanding Select each blue rectangle to learn more. Slide 29 – Check for Understanding 4 Text Captions: 1. I have signed up for a glass blowing class, and I am looking forward to a different creative experience. 2. When I go up North, I know I will need to bundle up, but I am looking forward to the snow and winter weather. 3. She packed him a big lunch for his drive, although she was sure he probably would not eat it. 4. The little girl protested going to bed. Label the following sentence constructions—the simple sentence, the compound sentence, the complex sentence, and the compound-complex sentence: Compound Compound-Complex Complex Simple Check for Understanding Select each blue rectangle to learn more. Slide 30 – Review Text Captions: Review – Part 1 The predicate is… The predicate is the part of a sentence that expresses what is said about the subject. English is what is called an SVO language, meaning… English is what is called an SVO language, meaning that the structure, at the most basic level, looks like the following: Subject -› Verb -› Object. A sentence is… A sentence is made up of at least one independent clause, which is a group of words that can stand on its own as a complete thought. Active voice in a sentence occurs… Active voice in a sentence occurs when the SVO order is used. Select each item to learn more. Slide 31 – Review Text Captions: Review – Part 2 A clause is a group of … A clause is a group of words, consisting of a subject and a predicate, including a finite verb. A clause does not necessarily constitute a sentence. An independent clause is… An independent clause is a clause that can stand alone as a sentence. Passive voice in a sentence occurs when… Passive voice in a sentence occurs when the OVS order is used. The subject of the sentence is either deprioritized or the subject is completely removed and obscured. A subordinate element is… A subordinate element is a coordinate or subordinate phrase or clause that modifies the independent clause or some part of it. These elements cannot stand alone as a sentence. Select each item to learn more. Slide 32 – Review Text Captions: Review – Part 3 There are four basic sentence constructions… There are four basic sentence constructions in the English language: the simple sentence, the compound sentence, the complex sentence, and the compound-complex sentence. A compound sentence is a sentence… A compound sentence is a sentence containing two or more independent clauses, usually joined by one or more coordinating conjunctions, but no subordinate elements. Coordinating conjunctions… Coordinating conjunctions: These conjunctions join together two independent clauses, along with a comma to form a compound sentence: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. The complex sentence is a sentence… The complex sentence is a sentence in which at least one IC and one SE are included in the sentence. Two types of complex sentences are periodic and loose. Select each item to learn more. Slide 33 – Review Text Captions: Review – Part 4 The loose sentence… The loose sentence, at its most basic, is a complex sentence in which the SE is presented after the IC, and the two may or may not be separated by a comma, depending upon the SE’s essentialness to the meaning of the sentence: IC SE. or IC, SE. A compound-complex sentence… A compound-complex sentence has at least two ICs and at least one SE. The periodic sentence… The periodic sentence, at its most basic, is a complex sentence in which the SE is presented before an IC and a comma separates the two: SE, IC. Select each item to learn more. Slide 34 – The End Text Captions: This concludes the material for the lesson. End The Slide 35 – References Text Captions: References… Ammer. (2012). Pumpkin and hat [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Halloween_g164-Pumpkin_And_Hat_p106043.html Page 35 of 35
Unit II Discussion QuestionCOLLAPSE In Lesson 2, in the 2.1 Introduction section, we discussed that there is a process to writing, but that there is no one, specific, start-to-finish process. Instead,
Adobe Captivate Slide 1 – Unit II Lesson 5 Understanding Paragraphs Text Captions: Understanding Paragraphs Unit II – Lesson 5 Slide 2 – Introduction Text Captions: Introduction In the last lesson, Lesson 4: “Understanding Sentences,” we discussed the structure of sentences and some of the basic constructions of sentence types. In this lesson, we will be moving forward with our understanding of writing by examining the paragraph. What exactly is a paragraph? Many people think that a paragraph is a particular number of sentences, but the definition is actually based more on how the paragraph serves as a unit of prose. Slide 3 – What is a paragraph? Text Captions: What is a Paragraph? A paragraph… • Is a self-contained unit of prose dealing with one idea. • Begins on a new line. • Begins with an indention in formal academic essay writing. • Is comprised of one or more sentences. • Is often used to organize longer prose. It is important to note that while a paragraph can be one sentence long, most paragraphs are not considered fully developed unless they are at least five sentences. Below, we will discuss paragraph structure, and it will become clearer why this minimum is a good rule to follow. Slide 4 – Paragraph Structure Text Captions: The Structure of a Paragraph… The basic structure of a paragraph holds true for most paragraph types, but the structure is put to work in different ways: Basic Paragraph Structure: Topic Sentence Supporting Sentences Concluding Sentence Note: There is green text in this unit. Please see the transcript if you need to see a black and white version of the lesson. Slide 5 – Example Paragraph Text Captions: Example Paragraph… Let’s take a closer look at each of these parts of the basic structure to better understand the role that each plays using the following paragraph as our example paragraph: The Ozark Mountains are known for their beauty. In the fall, the leaves turn wildly bright colors of scarlet, yellow, and rust. There is always a quiet, sleepy blanket of snow over the rolling hills for New Years, and just when you think you cannot take the winter anymore, spring brings showers and some of the most diverse flowering plants in the region. The summer is unrelenting, which will have you gladly heading towards one of the area’s many lakes. Thankfully, though, with four seasons, fall is right around the corner. No matter what time of year you decide to visit the area, you are sure to find something breathtaking. Slide 6 – Color-Coded Paragraph Text Captions: Example Paragraph… Now that you have had a chance to read through the paragraph and take it in, let’s look at that same paragraph color-coded: The Ozark Mountains are known for their beauty. In the fall, the leaves turn wildly bright colors of scarlet, yellow, and rust. There is always a quiet, sleepy blanket of snow over the rolling hills for New Years, and just when you think you cannot take the winter anymore, spring brings showers and some of the most diverse flowering plants in the region. The summer is unrelenting, which will have you gladly heading towards one of the area’s many lakes. Thankfully, though, with four seasons, fall is right around the corner. No matter what time of year you decide to visit the area, you are sure to find something breathtaking. Slide 7 – Topic Sentences Text Captions: Topic Sentences… The topic sentence is the main sentence of a paragraph, and it encapsulates the main idea and is the first sentence of the paragraph. In the paragraph above, the topic sentence is the first sentence: The Ozark Mountains are known for their beauty. The topic sentence is always the first sentence in a paragraph. It is positioned as the first sentence so that the reader will know what the topic of the paragraph is. In many cases, the topic sentence actually summarizes the paragraph while simultaneously announcing the topic of the paragraph. (Bird, 2015) Slide 8 – Topic Sentences Text Captions: Topic Sentences… There are two ways that a topic sentence can be written: Begin with the main idea: You can begin writing a paragraph with the topic sentence because the topic sentence is the main idea for the paragraph, and all the other sentences grow out from that one central idea sentence. In the example above, the main idea that the writer wants to convey is that the Ozark Mountains are known for their beauty. All of the other details that he or she uses to support that one idea could be many different things. Here, the writer has chosen to discuss how beautiful the four seasons in the Ozark Mountains are, but the paragraph could have gone very differently because people have many different ideas about beauty. The writer did not discuss the mountains themselves, the lakes, the fishing, the hiking trails, ziplining, horseback riding, etc. Summarize the main idea: You can write down all of the supporting ideas for the paragraph. Once finished, then you can look at your work and determine what the central, main idea is, and then formulate a topic sentence based on the content of the paragraph. For example, the writer of the example paragraph could have written about the four seasons in the Ozarks first, beginning with the second sentence because she knew that she wanted to write about the beauty of the seasons somehow. It was only after she had written the entire paragraph that she realized what her topic sentence actually was, and she was able to place it at the beginning of the paragraph. Select each item to learn more. Slide 9 – Supporting Sentences Text Captions: Supporting Sentences… Supporting sentences provide detail and explanation that “support” the topic sentence. The supporting sentences may break down the topic into a few more details or may provide explanation, illustration, or examples. In the example paragraph, the focus is on both explanation and some illustration, with some inclusion of details. Click here for sample paragraph Click here for sample paragraph Click here for sample paragraph Notice that one idea is focused on in the paragraph (accessed in the thought cloud). The focus is on the description of the four seasons and how each is beautiful in its own way. The last sentence in this excerpt has the tone that it is heading towards a conclusion. The last sentence might have actually stood for the conclusion sentence. The only problem is that the paragraph is not about “four seasons” necessarily; the paragraph is about the “beauty of the Ozark Mountains” as the topic sentence tells us as readers. Therefore, the conclusion sentence is needed in order to bring the main idea of “beauty” back around full circle. Slide 10 – Supporting Sentence Example Text Captions: Supporting Sentences Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] In the fall, the leaves turn wildly bright colors of scarlet, yellow, and rust. There is always a quiet, sleepy blanket of snow over the rolling hills for New Years, and just when you think you cannot take the winter anymore, spring brings showers and some of the most diverse flowering plants in the region. The summer is unrelenting, which will have you gladly heading towards one of the area’s many lakes. Thankfully, though, with four seasons, fall is right around the corner. Slide 11 – Supporting Sentences Text Captions: Supporting Sentences… Let’s look at another example of supporting sentences that could have supported the same idea. First, let’s take another look at the topic sentence: The Ozark Mountains are known for their beauty. Now, let us think of a few ways that the idea of the “beauty of the Ozark Mountains” might be written about. • The mountains themselves • The lakes • The fishing • The hiking trails • Ziplining • Horseback riding Click here for sample paragraph Click here for sample paragraph Click here for sample paragraph Slide 12 – Supporting Sentences Example Text Captions: More Supporting Sentences Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] Many people enjoy driving the roads of the Ozark Mountains in order to see the countryside up close and to get a better perspective of the hills themselves. For those who are more adventurous, ziplining is the only way to see over the treetops. For those who prefer to see the Ozarks face to face, the Tri-Lakes area provides a number of great fishing spots for a variety of fish for which the area is known, including the rainbow trout. Hiking trails, family-friendly nature trails, and horseback riding are also available for visitors who want to take their time to explore the diverse ecosystem of the mountains. Slide 13 – Supporting Sentences Text Captions: Supporting Sentences… You will likely notice that these supporting sentences still perform the same function as the previous example sentences. They still explicate the main idea by explaining and providing detail for the topic sentence. However, these sentences focus more on “activities in the area,” rather than the “four seasons,” giving the paragraph a completely different tone and feel. Depending on the writing situation, the writer would need to decide which of these two paragraphs fit best and spoke best to the assignment and audience. (Chrisroll, 2012) Slide 14 – Concluding Sentences Text Captions: Concluding Sentences… The concluding sentence summarizes the main idea of the paragraph by recalling the topic sentence. In the previous section (Supporting Sentences), we discussed the conclusion sentence that was paired with the supporting sentences from the first example paragraph. The conclusion sentence must reinforce the main idea of the paragraph, not the content of the supporting sentences. Therefore, let’s look at some ways that the concluding sentence supports the main idea, which is found in the topic sentence. Click here for sample paragraph Click here for sample paragraph Click here for sample paragraph Slide 15 – Concluding Sentence Example Text Captions: Concluding Sentence Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] The Ozark Mountains are known for their beauty. In the fall, the leaves turn wildly bright colors of scarlet, yellow, and rust. There is always a quiet, sleepy blanket of snow over the rolling hills for New Years, and just when you think you cannot take the winter anymore, spring brings showers and some of the most diverse flowering plants in the region. The summer is unrelenting, which will have you gladly heading towards one of the area’s many lakes. Thankfully, though, with four seasons, fall is right around the corner. No matter what time of year you decide to visit the area, you are sure to find something breathtaking. Slide 16 – Concluding Sentences Text Captions: Concluding Sentences… Firstly, let’s look at the two main elements of the paragraph side by side: The Ozark Mountains are known for their beauty. No matter what time of year you decide to visit the area, you are sure to find something breathtaking. Directly above, you will see the topic sentence and the conclusion sentence from the example paragraph. The supporting sentences have been removed. What do you notice? One thing you are likely to notice is that when you read the two together, they make sense, despite the fact that the details of the supporting sentences have been removed. This realization gives us a few insights: (1) the topic sentence and the conclusion sentence are linked together in a very essential way, (2) the details of the supporting sentences can change depending upon the support you want to provide, and (3) the conclusion sentence must be linked with the topic sentence. If the conclusion sentence and topic sentence are not linked, then the type of activity above will result in two sentences that do not make sense. Slide 17 – Concluding Sentences Text Captions: Concluding Sentences… Here is an example: The Ozark Mountains are known for their beauty. Thankfully, though, with four seasons, fall is right around the corner. If the student writer had stopped writing this paragraph with the second-to-last sentence, then the paragraph would not have unity based on the main idea of the paragraph, which again was “the beauty of the Ozarks,” not “the four seasons.” Remember the “four seasons” were just one way that the student writer could have written about the beauty of the Ozark Mountains. (Digitalart, 2011) Slide 18 – Concluding Sentences Example Text Captions: Concluding Sentences… In the second example paragraph, the supporting details focused on “activities in the area.” Here is what that paragraph looks like. Note that there is no concluding sentence as yet. The Ozark Mountains are known for their beauty. Many people enjoy driving the roads of the Ozark Mountains in order to see the countryside up close and to get a better perspective of the hills themselves. For those who are more adventurous, ziplining is the only way to see over the treetops. For those who prefer to see the Ozarks face to face, the Tri-Lakes area provides a number of great fishing spots for a variety of fish for which the area is known, including the rainbow trout. Hiking trails, family-friendly nature trails, and horseback riding are also available for visitors who want to take their time to explore the diverse ecosystem of the mountains. Slide 19 – Concluding Sentences Text Captions: Concluding Sentences… This paragraph needs a concluding sentence. The sentence from the first example will not work for this paragraph because it was written specifically for the first example: No matter what time of year you decide to visit the area, you are sure to find something breathtaking. It focuses on the beauty of the mountains. However, it is not the independent clause (IC) of the sentence that is the issue here, it is the subordinate element (SE). So let’s change the SE and IC slightly to better match the content of the second example which speaks about the things to do in the mountains. No matter what your interests are, you are sure to find a way to enjoy the breathtaking Ozark Mountains. Slide 20 – Concluding Sentences Text Captions: Concluding Sentences… So again, if we test the strength of the conclusion sentence, we can see that it holds up: The Ozark Mountains are known for their beauty. No matter what your interests are, you are sure to find a way to enjoy the breathtaking Ozark Mountains. The new conclusion sentence matches with the content of the paragraph while still fitting the main idea of the topic sentence. Slide 21 – Video: Structure of a Paragraph Text Captions: Use the controls in the bar below to play the video. Slide 22 – Check for Understanding Text Captions: Check for Understanding: More. re. e stepping up to his goal [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/figure-stepping-up-to-his-goal-photo-p268634 The next section of this lesson provides you with questions to check your understanding of the material presented in the lesson. This is not for a grade. Directions: Choose your answer and select the “Submit” button. You can change your answer by selecting the “Clear” button—but only before you select “Submit.” You can read through the Check for Understanding section again (after having answered the questions) by using the Table of Contents navigation on the left side of this presentation to take you back to the first slide of the section. Then you would simply navigate through the section by using the “Next” button on each slide. In order to navigate a question slide with your keyboard, hit the Tab key after entering the slide and then the up and down arrow keys to move among the answer choices. Hit the Enter key after your answer is chosen. Tab to get to other buttons. Hit ‘y’ to move to the next slide. Slide 23 – Check for Understanding Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice A paragraph is a self-contained unit of prose dealing with __________ idea(s). A) one B) several Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (One) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 1 of 5 Slide 24 – Check for Understanding 2 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice A paragraph begins on a new line and begins __________. A) flush with the left-hand margin. B) with an indention. Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (With an indention) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 2 of 5 Slide 25 – Check for Understanding 3 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice A paragraph is comprised of __________ . A) one or more sentences. B) five to seven sentences maximum. Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (One or more sentences) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 3 of 5 Slide 26 – Check for Understanding 4 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice A paragraph is often __________. A) used to organize longer prose. B) used to confuse students. Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (used to organize longer prose)- Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 4 of 5 Slide 27 – Check for Understanding 5 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice The basic structure of a paragraph is the following… A) A topic sentence, support sentences, and a concluding sentence B) A topic sentence, supportive sentences, and a conclusive sentence C) A tropical sentence, suppose sentences, and a constitutional sentence Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (topic sentence, support sentences, and a concluding sentence) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 5 of 5 Slide 28 – Review Text Captions: Review – Part 1 The basic structure of a paragraph is… The basic structure of a paragraph is the following: a topic sentence, support sentences, and a concluding sentence. The topic sentence is… The topic sentence is the main sentence of a paragraph, and it encapsulates the main idea and is the first sentence of the paragraph. A paragraph is… A paragraph is a self-contained unit of prose dealing with one idea, begins on a new line and begins with an indention, is comprised of one or more sentences, and is often used to organize longer prose. Select each item to learn more. Slide 29 – Review Text Captions: Review – Part 2 Supporting sentences provide… Supporting sentences provide detail and explanation that “support” the topic sentence. The supporting sentences may break down the topic into a few more details or may provide explanation, illustration, or examples. The concluding sentence summarizes… The concluding sentence summarizes the main idea of the paragraph by recalling the topic sentence. Select each item to learn more. Slide 30 – The End Text Captions: This concludes the material for the lesson. End The Slide 31 – References Text Captions: References… Bird, R. (2015). Misty mountains [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Landscapes_g114-Misty_Mountains_p1497.html Chrisroll. (2012). Young children walking in forest [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Friends_g364-Young_Children_Walking_In_Forest_p68242.html Digitalart. (2011). Types of season [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Spring_g102-Types_Of_Season_p61769.html Page 31 of 31
Unit II Discussion QuestionCOLLAPSE In Lesson 2, in the 2.1 Introduction section, we discussed that there is a process to writing, but that there is no one, specific, start-to-finish process. Instead,
Adobe Captivate Thursday, August 11, 2022 Slide 1 – Unit II Lesson 6 Different Types of Paragraphs Text Captions: Different Types of Paragraphs Unit II – Lesson 6 Slide 2 – Introduction Text Captions: Introduction Now that we have a firmer grasp of the paragraph itself, let’s look at a few different types of paragraphs and how the basic structure of the topic sentence, supporting sentences, and conclusion sentence are implemented in different circumstances. Slide 3 – Introductory Paragraph Text Captions: The Introductory Paragraph An introductory paragraph 1. is the first paragraph of the essay, 2. introduces the main idea of the essay, 3. attracts the reader and captures his or her interest, 4. identifies the topic and why it is important, 5. announces the purpose of the essay (usually), and 6. presents the thesis statement as the final sentence. Slide 4 – Paragraph Strategies Text Captions: Paragraph Strategies… There are many different strategies when it comes to writing an introductory paragraph. However, the basic model for the introductory paragraph is an opening sentence, supporting sentences, and the thesis statement itself. From this comparison to the basic model we discussed in Unit II, Lesson 5: Understanding Paragraphs, you might be able to see how the introductory paragraph makes use of the basic model, but in a particular way. Topic sentence = Opening sentence Supporting sentences = Supporting sentences Conclusion sentence = Thesis statement Not all introductions are the same, so the example introductory paragraph on the next slide is a general, basic model. You should always follow the conventions of the genre in which you are writing and/or the directions of the assignment. The following is the introduction from an example paper that we will be looking at for the rest of this lesson. Note: There is green text in this unit. Please see the transcript if you need to see a black and white version of the lesson. Slide 5 – Sample Intro Text Captions: Sample Introductory Paragraph… By the midcentury, the number of U.S. citizens diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes is projected to increase 162%; this is an increase of 11 million in 2000 to 29 million in 2050 (Boyle et al., 2001, p. 1936). The projection put forth by the Boyle et al. (2001) study was calculated at the turn of the century; more recently, the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) (2014), a division of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), estimates that 29 million Americans already have diabetes and that one in four are unaware of their condition. Further, the NCCDPHP (2014) estimates that one in three adults in the U.S. has prediabetes, placing this group at high risk for the development of Type 2 diabetes within five years. Excess weight gain and inactivity, as well as genetic predisposition, can cause inhibitions to the normal process of insulin production and glucose absorption (Mayo Clinic, 2014). However, Type 2 diabetes can be avoided because it is an onset condition. So while the number of diagnosed and undiagnosed staggers, there are still measures that can be taken to ensure that the percentage decreases. One such measure is an awareness of added sugar in foods that people think are “healthy” alternatives for junk food. In today’s supermarket, consumers must shop defensively by reading labels that compare both fat and sugar content because it is the sugar content that will ultimately lead to weight gain and diseases like Type 2 diabetes. An awareness of sugar levels and carbohydrates in everyday foods is the best defensive strategy against weight gain and adult-onset Type 2 diabetes. References can be found on final slide of presentation. Slide 6 – Intro Breakdown Text Captions: Intro Breakdown… The following slides will break down the example introductory paragraph for a closer look at what is happening inside the paragraph itself. [1] By the midcentury, the number of U.S. citizens diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes is projected to increase 162%; this is an increase of 11 million in 2000 to 29 million in 2050 (Boyle et al., 2001, p. 1936). [2] The projection put forth by the Boyle et al. (2001) study was calculated at the turn of the century; more recently, the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) (2014), a division of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), estimates that 29 million Americans already have diabetes and that one in four are unaware of their condition. [3] Further, the NCCDPHP (2014) estimates that one in three adults in the U.S. has prediabetes, placing this group at high risk for the development of Type 2 diabetes within five years. [4] Excess weight gain and inactivity, as well as genetic predisposition, can cause inhibitions to the normal process of insulin production and glucose absorption (Mayo Clinic, 2014). [5] However, Type 2 diabetes can be avoided because it is an onset condition, so while the number of diagnosed and undiagnosed staggers, there are still measures that can be taken to ensure that the percentage decreases. [6] One such measure is an awareness of added sugar in foods that people think are “healthy” alternatives for junk food. [7] In today’s supermarket, consumers must shop defensively by reading labels that compare both fat and sugar content because it is the sugar content that will ultimately lead to weight gain and diseases like Type 2 diabetes. [8] An awareness of sugar levels and carbohydrates in everyday foods is the best defensive strategy against weight gain and adult-onset Type 2 diabetes. Slide 7 – Opening Sentence Text Captions: Opening Sentence… [1] By the midcentury, the number of U.S. citizens diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes is projected to increase 162%; this is an increase of 11 million in 2000 to 29 million in 2050 (Boyle et al., 2001, p. 1936). This is the opening sentence; its job in the paragraph is to catch the reader’s attention, to deliver a starting fact or figure, or present information that draws the reader into the rest of the introduction and, in so doing, the rest of the paper. Slide 8 – Second Sentence Text Captions: Second Sentence… [2] The projection put forth by the Boyle et al. (2001) study was calculated at the turn of the century; more recently, the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) (2014), a division of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), estimates that 29 million Americans already have diabetes and that one in four are unaware of their condition. The second sentence makes a transition between the past and the present by making the reader keenly aware that the prediction of Boyle et al. (2001) did come true, but it came to pass 35 years earlier than expected, meaning that the spread of diabetes was worse than anyone could have even thought it might be only 15 years ago. Slide 9 – 3rd and 4th Sentence Text Captions: Third and Fourth Sentences… [3] Further, the NCCDPHP (2014) estimates that one in three adults in the U.S. has prediabetes, placing this group at high risk for the development of Type 2 diabetes within five years. [4] Excess weight gain and inactivity, as well as genetic predisposition, can cause inhibitions to the normal process of insulin production and glucose absorption (Mayo Clinic, 2014). The third and fourth sentences introduce more specifics about those at risk. Further, sentence four provides just a little information about what Type 2 diabetes is. Slide 10 – Fifth Sentence Text Captions: Fifth Sentence… [5] However, Type 2 diabetes can be avoided because it is an onset condition, so while the number of diagnosed and undiagnosed staggers, there are still measures that can be taken to ensure that the percentage decreases. Sentence five turns the direction of the paragraph. So far, the paragraph has provided information about the state of diabetes in the U.S., but now sentence five provides a statement of hope and an indication of the direction of the paper. Slide 11 – 6th and 7th Sentence Text Captions: Sixth and Seventh Sentences… [6] One such measure is an awareness of added sugar in foods that people think are “healthy” alternatives for junk food. [7] In today’s supermarket, consumers must shop defensively by reading labels that compare both fat and sugar content because it is the sugar content that will ultimately lead to weight gain and diseases like Type 2 diabetes. Sentence six introduces the topic of the paper: “added” or “hidden” sugars in foods that people may consider health foods or alternatives for unhealthy foods. Sentence seven is clear about the directive of the paper, providing that emphasis will be on the amount of sugar intake and how this leads to Type 2 diabetes specifically. Slide 12 – Final Sentence Text Captions: The Final Sentence… [8] An awareness of sugar levels and carbohydrates in everyday foods is the best defensive strategy against weight gain and adult-onset Type 2 diabetes. The final sentence attempts to state the thesis for the paper. While the thesis statement may not be perfect, we as readers understand where the student writer is headed and what the argument will be. Slide 13 – Body Paragraphs Text Captions: The Body Paragraphs… The body paragraphs, which are located after the introduction and before the conclusion, make up the longest part of the paper and develop the thesis statement. In an argumentative essay, a body paragraph will provide one of three or four points. All of the points support the thesis in some way and should provide the evidence necessary to convince the reader of the argument. Let’s take a look at how this works by looking at a few visuals. Basic paper structure Thesis statement and body paragraph relationship Select each banner to learn more. Slide 14 – Basic Paper Structure Text Captions: Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] Introduction Body Paragraphs Conclusion Basic Paper Structure Slide 15 – Basic Paper Structure Text Captions: Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] Thesis Statement Point 3 Thesis Statement and Body Paragraph Relationship Point 2 Point 1 Slide 16 – Four Main Parts Text Captions: Four Main Parts… A body paragraph generally has four main parts: point sentence, illustration sentences, explanation sentences, and concluding sentences. There is usually a transition either at the end of one paragraph, leading into the next, or at the beginning of the next paragraph. Four main parts of body paragraph Select the banner to learn lore. Slide 17 – Four Parts Iillustration Text Captions: Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] Point Illustration Explanation Four Main Parts of Body Paragraph Conclusion Slide 18 – Body Paragraph Example Text Captions: The Body Paragraph Example… Added sugars pose greater health risks than natural sugars and must be taken into account when choosing foods that are truly healthy to consume. Added sugars, those that are added to products during the manufacturing process and “not naturally occurring […], as in fresh fruit,” (Schmidt, 2014, p. 525) are now being linked to diseases, such as diabetes, that pose silent and deadly health risks to many Americans (Lustig, Schmidt, & Brindis, 2012; Schmidt, 2014). Naturally occurring sugars are not the issue so much as added sugars that can sometimes be hidden in foods that do not even taste sweet; sugar can be found in “flavored yogurt, tomato sauce, ketchup, bread, salad dressing, and crackers,” each of which have sugar added during processing (Girdwain, 2011). In addition to this list, there are also dried fruit (especially dried cranberries), many sauces and marinades for the grill, granola bars, frozen meals, fruit juice, canned fruit, and energy drinks (Breslau, 2015; Oaklander, 2013; Zinczenko, 2014). Many consumers who are attempting to watch their weight or even to watch their sugar intake may go to the supermarket and purchase items like salad dressing for salad, marinades for grilled chicken, dried fruit for a snack, and yogurt for breakfast. All the while, these seemingly “healthy” alternatives may be contributing to weight gain and medical conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. As Schmidt (2014) summarizes the risks of added sugars, “Too much sugar does not just make us fat; it can also make us sick” (p. 525). Avoiding products with added sugars or consuming them only upon occasion is the safest way to approach defensive eating. Excluding added sugars whenever possible is the best strategy for prevention for healthy individuals and for sustainability for those who are already prediabetic or diabetic. References can be found on final slide of presentation. Slide 19 – Conclusion Paragraph Text Captions: The Conclusion Paragraph… The conclusion paragraph should 1. Restate the main idea of the essay, including the thesis statement; 2. Summarize the points of each paragraph (usually the topic sentence of each paragraph); 3. Leave the reader with an interesting final thought. (njaj, 2012) Slide 20 – Conclusion Example Text Captions: The Concluding Paragraph Example… In order to defend against weight gain and the onset of diseases related to obesity, such as Type 2 diabetes, consumers should be aware of the amount of sugar in the foods that they eat. Many processed food products, such as ketchup, contain “added sugar,” which should be excluded from the diet whenever possible in favor of naturally occurring sugars. These naturally occurring sugars, like the kinds found in fresh fruit, can be a good source of carbohydrates if eaten in moderation and can even help to curb one’s appetite for sweeter food items (Torrens, 2015). While fresh fruits and vegetables are the best solution for avoiding added sugar, one must also be aware of the presence of starches, all of which are carbohydrates; eaten in moderation, starches found in vegetables can be healthy and can provide essential vitamins and minerals (Ogunjimi, 2015). Defensive shopping and eating are an essential part of preventative care in America today, and with diabetes standing as the 7th leading cause of death in the U.S. today, according to the American Diabetes Association (2014), one cannot afford to do less than be aware of the dangers of the seemingly sweet sugar cube. References can be found on final slide of presentation. Slide 21 – Mirror Text Captions: The Mirror… As you can see in the paragraph above, the first sentence mirrors the thesis statement. It is not an exact copy of the thesis statement word-for-word, but it is a restatement. The supporting sentences summarize the main points of the body paragraphs, which in this case are about (1) added sugars, (2) nartually occurring sugars, and (3) starches that become carbohydrates (sugars). Many writers will copy the topic sentences of each of their body paragraphs and place them into a paragraph together. Then they will rework those sentences to form the supporting sentences because the topic sentences from each body paragraph (if done correctly) should represent the main ideas from each paragraph. Last, the final sentence attempts to leave the readers with an interesting statement or call-to-action. You never want to end a paper with a quotation because you always want to end the paper with your own words. In this case, the author did leave on a note that was all his or her own, but did so with help from a statistic from the American Diabetes Association. (Restifo, n.d.) Slide 22 – Check for Understanding Text Captions: Check for Understanding: More. re. e stepping up to his goal [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/figure-stepping-up-to-his-goal-photo-p268634 The next section of this lesson provides you with questions to check your understanding of the material presented in the lesson. This is not for a grade. Directions: Choose your answer and select the “Submit” button. You can change your answer by selecting the “Clear” button—but only before you select “Submit.” You can read through the Check for Understanding section again (after having answered the questions) by using the Table of Contents navigation on the left side of this presentation to take you back to the first slide of the section. Then you would simply navigate through the section by using the “Next” button on each slide. In order to navigate a question slide with your keyboard, hit the Tab key after entering the slide and then the up and down arrow keys to move among the answer choices. Hit the Enter key after your answer is chosen. Tab to get to other buttons. Hit ‘y’ to move to the next slide. Slide 23 – Check for Understanding Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice __________ is the first paragraph of the essay. A) The introductory paragraph B) The body paraphraph Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (The introductory paragraph) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 1 of 10 Slide 24 – Check for Understanding 2 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice __________ introduces the main idea of the essay. A) The introductory paragraph B) The body paraphraph Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (The introductory paragraph) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 2 of 10 Slide 25 – Check for Understanding 3 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice __________ attracts the reader and captures his or her interest. A) The introductory paragraph B) The conclusion paragraph Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (The introductory paragraph) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 3 of 10 Slide 26 – Check for Understanding 4 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice __________ identifies the topic of the essay and why it is important. A) The introductory paragraph B) The conclusion paragraph Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (The introductory paragraph) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 4 of 10 Slide 27 – Check for Understanding 5 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice __________ presents the thesis statement. A) The introductory paragraph B) The body paragraph Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (The introductory paragraph) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 5 of 10 Slide 28 – Check for Understanding 6 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice The basic model for the introductory paragraph is an opening sentence, supporting sentences, and __________ . A) concluding sentence. B) the thesis statement. Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (The thesis statement) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 6 of 10 Slide 29 – Check for Understanding 7 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice __________ paragraphs make up the longest part of the paper. A) Introduction B) Body Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (Body) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 7 of 10 Slide 30 – Check for Understanding 8 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice __________ paragraphs develop the thesis. A) Body B) Conclusion Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (Body) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 8 of 10 Slide 31 – Check for Understanding 9 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice Body paragraph have __________ main parts. A) three B) four Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (Four) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 9 of 10 Slide 32 – Check for Understanding 10 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice The conclusion paragraph should __________ . A) introduce new ideas. B) restate the main idea of the essay. Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (restate the main idea of the essay) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 10 of 10 Slide 33 – Review Text Captions: Review – Part 1 The basic model for the introductory paragraph is… The basic model for the introductory paragraph is an opening sentence, supporting sentences, and the thesis statement. The body paragraphs are located… The body paragraphs are located after the introduction and before the conclusion, make up the longest part of the paper, and develop the thesis statement. An introductory paragraph is… An introductory paragraph is the first paragraph of the essay, introduces the main idea of the essay, attracts the reader and captures his or her interest, identifies the topic and why it is important, announces the purpose of the essay (usually), and presents the thesis statement (as the final sentence). Select the item to learn more. Slide 34 – Review Text Captions: Review – Part 2 The conclusion paragraph should… The conclusion paragraph should restate the main idea of the essay, including the thesis statement; summarize the points of each paragraph (usually the topic sentence of each paragraph); and leave the reader with an interesting final thought. A body paragraph generally has four main parts: A body paragraph generally has four main parts: point sentence, illustration sentences, explanation sentences, and concluding sentences. Select the item to learn more. Slide 35 – The End Text Captions: This concludes the material for the lesson. End The Slide 36 – References Text Captions: American Diabetes Association . (2014). Statistics about diabetes: Overall numbers, diabetes and prediabetes. www.diabetes.org Boyle, J. P., Honeycutt, A. A., Venkat Narayan, K. M., Hoerger, T. J., Geiss, L. S., Chen, H., & Thompson, T. J. (2001). Projection of diabetes through 2050. Diabetes Care, 24(11). 1936-1940. doi: 10.2337/diacare.24.11.1936 Breslau, E. (2015). 9 hidden sources of sugar in your diet. Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/04/11/hidden-sugar-in-food-_n_7020234.html Girdwin, J. (2011). Is sugar sneaking into your “healthy” foods. Women’s Health. http://www.womenshealthmag.com/food/addictive-sugar-habits Lustig, R. H., Schmidt, L. A., & Brindis, C. D. (2012). Public health: The toxic truth about sugar. Nature, 482, 27-29. doi:10.1038/482027a Mayo Clinic. (2014). Type 2 diabetes: Causes. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-2-diabetes/basics/causes/con-20031902 National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2014). Diabetes latest. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. www.cdc.gov Njaj. (2012). The end of the movie [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Movies_theater_and_c_g202-The_End_Of_The_Movie_p80657.html Oaklander, M. (2013). 10 hidden sugar bombs: Spot the sweet stuff in the strangest of places. Prevention. http://www.prevention.com/food/healthy-eating-tips/10-hidden-sugar-bombs Ogunjimi, A. (2015). Differences between starches and carbohydrates. LiveStrong. http://www.livestrong.com/article/415993-differences-between-starches-and-carbs/ Restifo, A. (n.d.). Reflection [Image]. Unsplash. https://download.unsplash.com/photo-1419064642531-e575728395f2 Schmidt, L. A. (2014). New unsweetened truths about sugar. JAMA Internal Medicine, 174(4), 525-526. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.12991. Torrens, K. (2015). The truth about sugar. BBC Good Food. http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/howto/guide/truth-about-sugar Zinczenko, D. (2014). 5 ‘healthy’ foods with hidden sugar. ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Health/healthy-foods-hidden-sugar/story?id=22802039 References… Slide 1 – Question Pool – Pool1 Text Captions: Matching Match the following Column 1 A B C D E F G Column 2 1. WAN DOMAIN 2. USER DOMAIN 3. REMOTE ACCESS DOMAIN 4. SYSTEM / APPLICATION DOMAIN 5. LAN TO WAN DOMAIN 6. WORKSTATION DOMAIN 7. LAN DOMAIN Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question of Try again Slide 2 – Question Pool – Pool1 Text Captions: Matching Match the following Column 1 A B C Column 2 1. Being on a winning team 2. Perceived importance of work 3. Rewards and discipline Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question of Try again Slide 3 – Question Pool – Pool1 Text Captions: Fill-In-The-Blank Complete the sentence below by filling in the blanks. Type the blank phrase Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question of Slide 4 – Question Pool – Pool1 Text Captions: Multiple Choice Within the user domain, some of the ways in which risk can be mitigated include awareness, enforcement, and __________. A) people B) reward C) process D) user access Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question of Try again Slide 5 – Question Pool – Pool1 Text Captions: Multiple Choice In the workstation domain, __________ is the best method of reducing the risk of information leakage. A) enforcing an acceptable use policy B) requiring security awareness training C) disabling Universal Serial Bus (USB) ports D) installing accepted user programs Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question of Try again Slide 6 – Question Pool – Pool1 Text Captions: Multiple Choice How is risk reduced in the LAN-to-WAN domain? A) Reviewing logs B) Setting up a DMZ C) Both A and B D) Neither A nor B Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question of Try again Slide 7 – Question Pool – Pool1 Text Captions: Multiple Choice In which domain is virtual private networking a security control? A) WAN Domain B) Remote Access Domain C) Both A and B D) Neither A nor B Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question of Try again Slide 8 – Question Pool – Pool1 Text Captions: Multiple Choice The basic elements of motivation include pride, success, and __________. A) group interest B) failure C) self-interest D) happiness Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question of Try again Slide 9 – Question Pool – Pool1 Text Captions: Multiple Choice A primary reason why security policies often fail is __________. A) lack of complexity B) insufficient leadership support C) not enough money D) poor planning Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question of Try again Slide 10 – Question Pool – Pool1 Text Captions: Multiple Choice Which of the following is NOT true of a hierarchical organization? A) More layers than a flat organization B) Centralized authorities C) A necessity in many large organizations D) Wide span of control Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question of Try again Slide 11 – Question Pool – Pool1 Text Captions: Multiple Choice Which personality type tends to be associated with good leaders? A) Achiever B) Pleaser C) Attacker D) Analytical Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question of Try again Page 47 of 47
Unit II Discussion QuestionCOLLAPSE In Lesson 2, in the 2.1 Introduction section, we discussed that there is a process to writing, but that there is no one, specific, start-to-finish process. Instead,
Adobe Captivate Slide 1 – Unit II Lesson 8 Grammar and Style Text Captions: Grammar and Style Unit II – Lesson 8 Slide 2 – Lesson Concepts Text Captions: In This Lesson… Sentence Errors: Comma Splices, Fragments, Run-ons/Fused Sentences Note: Each section contains instruction on the grammar or style concept followed by Check For Understanding questions. Slide 3 – The Comma Splice Text Captions: The Comma Splice A comma splice is created when a writer joins two (or more) independent clauses with only a comma. A comma is never adequate punctuation to connect complete sentences. Unfortunately, many writers will consistently create comma splices, often several in every paragraph, until such time that they find out what a comma splice is and how to avoid the problem or at least find and correct the structures during the editing process. While a comma should never be used alone to connect complete sentences, the semicolon is designed to do just that very thing: Ann likes her cat, Bill likes his dog. (comma splice) Ann likes her cat; Bill likes his dog. (correct) Slide 4 – Comma Splice Text Captions: A less common comma-splice structure comes when a writer deploys conjunctive adverbs as connectors between independent clauses. The most common conjunctive adverbs are however, therefore, moreover, and nevertheless. These words are not automatically conjunctive adverbs, and in fact are more often simple interrupters. They become conjunctive adverbs, however, and demand a special punctuation only when they connect two complete sentences or independent clauses. In that case, there must be a semicolon before the word and a comma after. Unless there are two complete sentences, one on either side of the word, the structure cannot use a semicolon. We all wanted to go to the fair; therefore, on Monday we left early for the fairgrounds. The enemy was fully entrenched in the city; moreover, they had anti-tank missiles deployed. In the examples below, the conjunctive adverbs are simply acting as interrupters, and therefore do not need a semicolon. I, however, chose not to join in the revelry. Everyone seemed to know, nevertheless, that to leave early would mean a pink slip. Comma Splice Slide 5 – The Fragment Text Captions: The Fragment Most students likely already know that a fragment is an incomplete sentence. Although it might start with a capital letter and conclude with an end mark, it might lack a verb, subject, or anything else necessary for the structure to be a complete sentence. Fortunately, not many students use fragments, that is, unless perhaps they are writing in haste and without any editing. When something as conspicuous as a verb or subject is missing, it does not take an Einstein to know something is wrong: Ran down the hill in a hurry. (missing subject; who or what ran down the hill?) In a great hurry and without his pacemaker, Randy. (missing verb; what did Randy do?) Slide 6 – Fragment Text Captions: The one structure that will frequently cause even a good writer to leave a fragment in a final draft is the dependent clause. Students know that by definition a clause contains a subject and a verb, but those two elements alone do not make a sentence. What causes a normal sentence to become a dependent clause is always that first word. He went to town very early. (sentence) but When he went to town very early . . . (dependent clause) Randy looked toward the horizon in wonder. (sentence) but As Randy looked toward the horizon in wonder . . . (dependent clause) Students must remember that a dependent clause, in spite of a subject and verb, and even with a large number of logically related words in its full structure, is always a fragment. The Fragment Slide 7 – The Run-on Text Captions: The Run-on or Run-together Sentence A run-on sentence, sometimes also called a run-together sentence, is two sentences that have been combined into one sentence without any of the appropriate conjunctions or punctuation. Fortunately, these structures are rare and virtually never a problem—except perhaps in a paper that is written furiously and handed in without inspection. Students often read these structures and know immediately that something is wrong, but have to read the structure two or three times before realizing that there are two sentences with nothing between them. Slide 8 – Run-on Text Captions: The Run-on or Run-together Sentence Ann likes her cat Bill likes his dog. (run-on) Ann likes her cat; Bill likes his dog. (correct) Ann likes her cat, and Bill likes his dog. (correct) The hurricane approached the coast suddenly it went directly inland. (run-on) The hurricane approached the coast; suddenly it went directly inland. (correct) The hurricane approached the coast, and suddenly it went directly inland. (correct) The hurricane approached the coast; however, suddenly it went directly inland. (correct) Slide 9 – Video: Sentence Errors Text Captions: Use the controls in the bar below to play the video. Slide 10 – Errors: Check for Understanding Text Captions: The next section of this lesson provides you with questions to check your understanding of the material presented in the lesson. This is not for a grade. Directions: Choose your answer and select the “Submit” button. You can change your answer by selecting the “Clear” button—but only before you select “Submit.” You can read through the Check for Understanding section again (after having answered the questions) by using the Table of Contents navigation on the left side of this presentation to take you back to the first slide of the section. Then you would simply navigate through the section by using the “Next” button on each slide. In order to navigate a question slide with your keyboard, hit the Tab key after entering the slide and then the up and down arrow keys to move among the answer choices. Hit the Enter key after your answer is chosen. Tab to get to other buttons. Hit ‘y’ to move to the next slide. Check for Understanding: More. re. e stepping up to his goal [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/figure-stepping-up-to-his-goal-photo-p268634 Slide 11 – Errors: Check for Understanding 1 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Fill-In-The-Blank Identify the following groups of words as either a fragment or a sentence. Because we had made fun of global warming. fragment Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 1 of 14 Slide 12 – Errors: Check for Understanding 2 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Fill-In-The-Blank Identify the following groups of words as either a fragment or a sentence. If our hard work and dedication could possibly earn us a degree. fragment Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 2 of 14 Slide 13 – Errors: Check for Understanding 3 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Fill-In-The-Blank Identify the following groups of words as either a fragment or a sentence. When we were young, we did not know any better. fragment Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 3 of 14 Slide 14 – Errors: Check for Understanding 4 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Fill-In-The-Blank Identify the following groups of words as either a fragment or a sentence. Since I had known her from middle school through all of her college days. fragment Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 4 of 14 Slide 15 – Errors: Check for Understanding 5 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Fill-In-The-Blank Identify the following groups of words as either a fragment or a sentence. Of course, we did not know the answers. fragment Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 5 of 14 Slide 16 – Errors: Check for Understanding 6 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Fill-In-The-Blank Identify the following groups of words as either a fragment or a sentence. Who came in suddenly without any warning. fragment Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 6 of 14 Slide 17 – Errors: Check for Understanding 7 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Fill-In-The-Blank Identify the following structure as either a comma splice, run-on, or correct. The last bus was thirty minutes late the principal was upset. comma splice Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect ( The answer is run-on) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 7 of 14 Slide 18 – Errors: Check for Understanding 8 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Fill-In-The-Blank Identify the following structure as either a comma splice, run-on, or correct. The weather at the beach was horrible, it had rained for six days. comma splice Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (The answer is comma splice.) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 8 of 14 Slide 19 – Errors: Check for Understanding 9 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Fill-In-The-Blank Identify the following structure as either a comma splice, run-on, or correct. The tire was flat, however, we drove all the way home. comma splice Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (The answer is comma splice.) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 9 of 14 Slide 20 – Errors: Check for Understanding 10 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Fill-In-The-Blank Identify the following structure as either a comma splice, run-on, or correct. When I got to the mall, the police were arriving in force. comma splice Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (The answer is correct.) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 10 of 14 Slide 21 – Errors: Check for Understanding 11 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Fill-In-The-Blank Identify the following structure as either a comma splice, run-on, or correct. Every new television show was great in fact most were reality shows. comma splice Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (The answer is run-on.) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 11 of 14 Slide 22 – Errors: Check for Understanding 12 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Fill-In-The-Blank Identify the following structure as either a comma splice, run-on, or correct. The stolen car crashed through the wall; however, it stopped at that point. comma splice Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (The answer is correct.) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 12 of 14 Slide 23 – Errors: Check for Understanding 13 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Fill-In-The-Blank Identify the following structure as either a comma splice, run-on, or correct. The food in New Orleans is always good, I can do without the crime though. comma splice Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (The answer is comma splice.) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 13 of 14 Slide 24 – Errors: Check for Understanding 14 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Fill-In-The-Blank Identify the following structure as either a comma splice, run-on, or correct. We knew we were all in trouble because the detective walked straight toward us. comma splice Correct – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. Incorrect (The answer is correct.) – Click anywhere or press ‘y’ to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 14 of 14 Slide 25 – The End Text Captions: This concludes the material for the lesson. End The Page 25 of 25

Writerbay.net

Do you need help with this or a different assignment? We offer CONFIDENTIAL, ORIGINAL (Turnitin/LopesWrite/SafeAssign checks), and PRIVATE services using latest (within 5 years) peer-reviewed articles. Kindly click on ORDER NOW to receive an A++ paper from our masters- and PhD writers.

Get a 15% discount on your order using the following coupon code SAVE15


Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper