White assignment – 421

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Students will create a formal document that explains an organizational response to a particular sport industry issue. More specifically, students will identify one area/level of sport participation that has been studied this term. For example, you might select youth sports/amateur sports in the community. Next, the student will select a governance issue or problem within the level of participation for which they are interested. For example, the student might select issues related to fundraising within youth sports (Hum & MacLean, page 135). The body of the assignment will offer positions/reactions/solutions for the issue selected.  Students will need to create multiple arguments to support their chosen position/reaction/solution. Based on the information and outline provided in this document, as well as the sample provided, students will write a White Assignement based on the following criteria:  

Your assignment must be completed based on the following criteria: 

· 6 full pages in the body, plus a title page, table of contents and reference page (minimum of 9 total pages);

· 1-inch margins;

· Double-spaced;

· 12-point, Times New Roman font;

· 4 scholarly resources; and

· 1 biblical passage.

You must include the reference information for each source in correct current APA format on a separate page.

SMGT 421

White Paper Assignment Instructions

What is a White Paper?

Originally, the term white paper was used as shorthand to refer to an official government report, indicating that the document is authoritative and informative in nature. Writers typically use this genre when they argue a specific position or propose a solution to a problem, addressing the audience outside of their organization.

The Purpose of a White Paper

Typically, the purpose of a white paper is to advocate that a certain position is the best way to go or that a certain solution is best for a particular problem.

What Kind of Problems Do Readers Want to Solve?

The audience for a white paper can be the general public or those working within the sport industry. You may or may not know your audience personally. In order to persuade your audience, you need to focus on their needs. You must address the problems that your readers want to solve so they will read your white paper for a solution. It is important to emphasize your readers’ interests rather than your interests, as shown in the example below:

Not: This white paper introduces ABC company’s new freight service.

Instead: This white paper discusses how to choose a freight service company that best fits your needs.

Example of a White Paper

An example of a White Paper is provided on the topic of avoiding amputations for diabetics. Notice that a White Paper differs significantly from a research paper in terms of format. Pictures, graphs, statistics, etc. are appropriate. Your paper should resemble the example provided.

White Paper: Organization and Writing Tips

A white paper typically starts with a big picture and leads readers to the proposed solution. Make the headings clear and specific so that readers can read the white paper effectively. The following are general guidelines on organizing a white paper.

Introduction / Summary

It is a good idea to provide a summary at the beginning of the paper in order to have readers quickly grasp the main point.

Background / Problems

A white paper needs to provide readers with general background information of a particular issue in order to help them make their decision based on the understanding of facts. Show them enough evidence that you are an expert on the subject. Point out problems from your readers’ perspective. Make sure that you do not digress from the main subject; do not pose problems for which you cannot provide solutions.


After explaining the background and problems, propose your solution.


Write a conclusion in order to wrap up the white paper and enhance your readers’ understanding.


Put the references at the end of your white paper.

White Paper Instructions

Students will create a formal document that explains an organizational response to a particular sport industry issue. More specifically, students will identify one area/level of sport participation that has been studied this term. For example, you might select youth sports/amateur sports in the community. Next, the student will select a governance issue or problem within the level of participation for which they are interested. For example, the student might select issues related to fundraising within youth sports (Hum & MacLean, page 135). The body of the white paper will offer positions/reactions/solutions for the issue selected. Students will need to create multiple arguments to support their chosen position/reaction/solution. Based on the information and outline provided in this document, as well as the sample White Paper provided, students will write a White Paper based on the following criteria:

Your paper must be completed based on the following criteria:

· 6 full pages in the body of your paper plus a title page, table of contents and reference page (minimum of 9 total pages);

· 1-inch margins;

· Double-spaced;

· 12-point, Times New Roman font;

· 4 scholarly resources; and

· 1 biblical passage.

You must include the reference information for each source in correct current APA format on a separate page.

Your assignment is due by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of the assigned module: week.

Page 1 of 2

Avoiding Amputations
for Diabetics

“How Podiatry Care Changes Your Life”

Dorian Danic, Brittany Troy, Angela Wilkening Fall 2010


Diabetes: An Epidemic Leading To Many Avoidable Amputations……2

What is Type II Diabetes………………………………………………………………….2

When Things Get Complicated…………………………………………………………2

Diabetes Through Time…………………………………………………………………..4

It COULD Cost You an Arm and a Leg………………………………………………6

The Solution: Spreading Awareness………………………………………………..8


Please Pick Up Your Pens…………………………………………………………..9

Care at Your Front Door Step: Home Health Podiatry……………….10

Preventative Care: Case Study………………………………………………………11

Will the Message Be Heard?………………………………………………………….12

Stop The Trend Now………………………………………………………………………12


When Things Get Complicated

Individuals currently
suffering from type 2 diabetes
mellitus are prone to numerous
complications as a result of their
disease. Patients themselves are
often unaware of the potential risks
as well as what sorts of
consequences can ensue with poor
management of the disease.
Specifically, diabetics are threatened
by lower extremity hardships such
as skin changes, decreased
circulation, foot deformity,
neuropathy, development of ulcers,
and in the worst case scenario,
amputation. Several studies have
found that primary care physicians
unfortunately fail to perform any
sort of foot examination on diabetic
patients during routine office visits.
In 2005, there were more than
71,000 lower extremity amputations
performed due to untreated foot
complications, all of which could
have been avoided. (“Diabetes”,
2010) The Diabetic Foot Research
Group of San Antonio, Texas
claims,“Early detection and
appropriate treatment of [these]
ulcers may prevent up to 85 percent
of amputations,” as well as
drastically reduce inflated health
care costs (Armstrong & Lavery,

What is Type II Diabetes?



1998). By educating diabetic patients and their families on the risk
of complications, daily foot monitoring, proper footwear, and
healthy living habits, amputation rates will be drastically reduced.
This inexpensive, yet effective manner can be achieved through a
variety of outlets such as advertising, podiatry care, and diabetic
educational courses. In this manner, masses of individuals will be
reached and the amputation epidemic within the diabetes epidemic
will retard.
Informing diabetics on the serious problems that can result
from diabetes will drastically reduce the number of hospitalizations

In type 2 diabetes, either the body does not produce enough
insulin or the cells ignore the insulin. Insulin is necessary for the
body to be able to use glucose for energy. When you eat food, the
body breaks down all of the sugars and starches into glucose,
which is the basic fuel for the cells in the body. Insulin takes the
sugar from the blood into the cells. When glucose builds up in the
blood instead of going into cells, it can lead to diabetes




as well as skyrocketing expenses
related to lower extremity conditions.
Spreading knowledge constitutes that
key aspects of diabetic foot care are
covered. For instance, patients should
be educated on the implications of
neuropathy, which is defined as nerve
damage that causes the loss of
protective sensation. This loss of
feeling means that seemingly harmless
injuries to the foot can transition into
ulcers, or open wounds, which
eventually result in infection. Patients
should come to understand that foot
monitoring on a daily basis is essential,
and they should be advised on the appearance of erythema, callus, infections, and nail
problems” (O’Loughlin, McIntosh, Dineen, & O’Brien, 2010). Moreover, diabetic footwear is necessary
to avoid excessive pressure and force on the foot, both of which can lead to ulcers and/or deformities.
Lastly, avoiding cigarette smoking, exercising regularly, following a low fat diet, and maintaining target
levels for lipids, glucose, and blood pressure are all crucial in preventing the progression of diabetic
symptoms (O’Loughlin et al., 2010). Stressing this information to the family as well as to the medical
team involved with treatment will ultimately solidify the potential dangers to the patient. Unless
widespread education of diabetic lower extremity risks is not achieved, patients will continue to lose
unnecessary limbs and America will continue to fork over billions in unnecessary surgical procedures.
The advantages of educating diabetics are profound and will undoubtedly reverse the condition for
a vast group of individuals. Is it possible to create a widespread, yet effective method, idea, or tool to
prevent further health complications for diabetic patients?

Diabetes Through Time
Diabetes mellitus has been recognized as a devastating and deadly
disease for over a thousand years. Before the time of modern medicine,
doctors could only prescribe a diet change to cope with the illness and
many were told they had a year to live once diagnosed. Throughout
medicinal revolutions however, new methods in treating and managing
the disease have developed. In the 1920’s, two Canadian doctors
developed the first production of insulin. Forty years later, a home test
was created to assess blood glucose levels. Today, this disease is
controllable if the proper care is given at the appropriate stages. Having
1.6 million additional diagnoses each year, however, indicates that
diabetics are failing to handle their condition at the appropriate time or
through an appropriate approach.
Since 1980, diabetes diagnoses have more than quadrupled from 5.6

million cases to 23.6 million current cases. With the presence of the obesity epidemic in the United States,
those who are overweight or obese now account for over 83% of the diabetic population (“Diabetes Data,”
2007). This challenge was not previously addressed as the influence of inactive lifestyle and harmful fast-
food was never this prevalent. The United States has truly lost its grasp on keeping its individuals from
reaching an unhealthy human status. This status has contributed to the majority of diagnosed diabetics and

will do the same for nearly 60 million more that are in pre-diabetic

The issue here is that we have moved from pharmaceutical
control of the disease into the ultimate last resort which is surgery.
Diabetic amputations have increased from 33,000 in 1980 to over
71,000 in 2005, proving a reliance on surgery instead of more
primitive forms of prevention. Exercising regularly and eating healthy
are effective educational aspects that need to hold more of an impact
during physician diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. A growing trend
of diabetic cases has also led to a mounting number of complications

that we are still attempting to fully understand from an anatomical
and physiological standpoint. Hospital discharges as a result of
neuropathy have risen from 39,000 in 1980 to an astounding 66,000
discharges in 2003. Hospital discharges stemming from ulcers have
also been on the rise, with 39,000 discharges in 1980 to a shocking
111,000 in 2003. Another complication known as Peripheral Arterial
Disease (PAD) which causes reduced blood flow in the lower
extremities, accounted for 40,000 hospital discharges in 1980 and an
inflated 92,000 discharges in 2003 (“Diabetes Data,” 2007). It is
clear that medicine, topical treatment, and surgery are not the



An abnormal and
usually degenerative
state of the nervous
system or nerve that
can lead to loss of
feeling in the feet or
other extremities,
especially in the
diabetic patient.


A circumscribed
inflammatory and
often suppurating
lesion on the skin
or an internal
mucous surface
resulting in
necrosis of tissue

The concentration
of glucose in the
blood. Measured in
milligrams per
deciliter (mg/dL)
in the US. High
levels can indicate

A condition characterized by
hyperglycemia resulting from
the body’s inability to use blood
glucose for energy. In Type 1
diabetes, the pancreas no longer
makes insulin and therefore
blood glucose cannot enter the
cells to be used for energy. In
Type 2 diabetes, either the
pancreas does not make enough
insulin or the body is unable to
use insulin correctly.

Diabetes Mellitus:Blood Glucose:

Leading cause of death in


Children & Adults suffering

from Diabetes


New Cases Each Year


According to the
American Diabetes


primary solutions to controlling diabetes and its complications.
Prevention routines have been instilled, however, and many
diabetics do make an effort in battling their disease. For instance, in 2008
67.2% of diagnosed diabetics reported having a foot examination within the
past year, 63.5% reported examining their feet on a daily basis, and 56.3%
reported ever attending a diabetes self-management course (“Diabetes
Data,” 2007). On the other hand, taking just 30% of the rest of the diabetic
population means that over 7 million individuals took no part in any of
these kinds of prevention means. These 7 million are more than enough to
place severe strain on America’s healthcare costs. If more diabetics were
involved with prevention activities and behavior, amputations and overall
hospitalizations due to complications would be downsized significantly.




these dollars, with every amputation procedure costing
approximately $38, 077 (“American diabetes association,”
2007). Around 60% to 70% of diabetics suffer from
neuropathy and around 600,000 diabetics develop foot ulcers
every year (“Fact Sheet,” 2008). Lower extremity treatment
that does not require amputation, like the debridement of
ulcers, ranges from $8,000 to $20,000 per procedure. Inpatient
and outpatient costs surfacing after this simple tissue removal
range from $4,000 to $7,000 (Holzer et al., 1998).Those that
allow their ulcers to worsen run the risk of infection, and once
infection sets in, amputation is next in line.

When comparing the costs for treating amputations to
the costs of treating an ulcer, the numbers are considerably
higher. “According to the Journal of the American Podiatric
Medical Association, a foot or lower leg amputation costs
between $30,000 and $60,000 in initial hospital costs, plus
between $43,000 and $60,000 in costs for follow-up care over
the next three years” (Phillips, 2009). Follow-up care is
composed of but not limited to the inpatient hospital stay, the

The United States is officially
experiencing an obesity epidemic which
tracks and causes diabetes. The appeal of a
sedentary lifestyle along with unhealthy
foods has trapped many and thus, led to an
alarming rise of diabetes diagnoses.
Moreover, many diabetic patients are
reluctant to take part in self-prevention
methods since they would have to pay for it
themselves, while expenses for treatment are
covered through insurance. This is where
educating the masses functions as an
inexpensive tactic to truly exemplify how
this lack of urgency can lead to life changing
circumstances. Ironically, daily self-
examination of the foot is the best
prevention method for complications and it
only costs the individual a few minutes of
their day.

Lower extremity complications
associated with diabetes mellitus hold great
impact on individual and group demeanor
and emotion, nationwide health status, and
healthcare costs. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is
a chronic condition that currently affects
23.6 million people, nearly 8% of the
American population. In 2002, it was
estimated by the Amputee Coalition of
America that the total annual cost of diabetes
was near $132 billion, about “one out of
every ten healthcare dollars spent in the
United Sates”. Diabetic amputations
contributed a staggering three billion of

Nation’s Total Diabetic
Expenses (per year)

$174 Billion


outpatient recovery process, the
pharmaceutical treatment process, and the
physical wound treatment process. Long
after the surgery, patients as well as tax-
paying citizens will feel the effects from
orthotic appliances, prosthesis, home care,
social services, and any time taken off of
work for disability purposes. These sorts of
wide-spanning and ongoing costs cannot and
will not ever be able to be distinguished.

Public insurance companies and the
American healthcare system alike are feeling
the burden of excessive diabetic
amputations. The U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services states that health care
costs are three times higher for diabetes
patients with multiple hospitalizations as
compared to diabetes patients with a single
stay in a given year. It is no surprise that the
multiple hospitalization patients are those
requiring amputation treatment. Patients with
Medicare account for a majority of these
costs as they are 48% more likely to have
multiple hospital stays compared to those
with private insurance. HCUP Highlight
Issue 1 is data collected by the U.S.D. of
Health and Human Services and it alleges
that, “With appropriate primary care for
diabetes complications, nearly $2.5 billion in
hospital costs might have been averted, with
significant potential savings obtained in

Medicare ($1.3 billion of total costs) and Medicaid ($386
million of total costs)” (“Economic,” 2005) Stopping the
complications before a snowball effect happens will
undoubtedly halt further unnecessary healthcare deficits.
From a cultural standpoint, individual and family
suffering is present in both physical and metal form. A patient
that has experienced an amputation will no longer be a mobile
as they once were causing them to depend on others for daily
functioning. This puts economic strain on the family as
various accommodations must be provided, while self-
sustaining duties such as going to work will not be possible
and amputees with jobs will come to realize that off from work
will be unavoidable. Furthermore, the disconnection from
being independent and self-sufficient can emotionally drain
and distress an individual. To avoid negative consequences
existing in many realms, the entire American market should be
driven towards educating the diabetic population.


Lower-Limb Amputation

Nerve Damage


Kidney Failure

High Blood Pressure 75%


The Solution: Spreading Awareness

Advertising through various outlets is a cost efficient way to reach
a large group of individuals. For example, prevention promotion
can be communicated through billboards, magazine ads,
newspaper ads, medical periodical ads, TV and radio commercials,
and pamphlets located at diabetic populated settings. Pamphlets
can be provided to patients at no cost and will contain information
on identifying risks, easy-to-read steps on how to properly take
care of their feet, and future consequences if prevention is not


implemented. To be effective, these pamphlets will be
dispersed at clinics, hospitals, nursing homes, and pharmacies
to provide easy access for diabetic patients to view and take
home. The cost of producing 10,000 pamphlets can reach up
to $1000, but this cost is priceless compared to the
widespread knowledge that would be spread and the positive
prevention consequences that would follow. Presently, there is
lack of advertisement for not only the availability but the
importance of diabetic footwear as well. Creating strong ads
that explain what can occur if improperly fitting shoes are
worn will induce more diabetics to purchase a better fitting
shoe and thus, save their foot from irreversible damage.

Diabetic shoes can be flaunted through all major forms of media but communicating the ad to the intended
audience in the right locations is still important. Each of the previously mentioned forms of mass
communication could also push to provide contact information for local podiatry clinics as well as
podiatrists offering home-health care. A large scale approach to advertising will encourage diabetics to be
proactive in the treatment of their disease and in due course reduce the number of lower extremity
hospitalizations and the dreaded amputations.

Educational Pamphlets Newspaper AdsRadio Commercials


Steps To Take:

1. Inspect your feet daily

2. Cut nails carefully

3. Never self treat calluses

4. Get periodic foot exams

5. Wear socks to bed

6. Never walk barefoot

7. Wear clean, dry socks

8. Moisturize your feet

9. Take care of your diabetes

Educate Yourself:

A physical presence that an individual can see and hear is an
exceptionally valuable teaching tool. A diabetic educational course
conducted by a health expert will allow patients to grasp the
severity of their disease. Publicly funded classes such as those of
Alcoholics Anonymous will cover diabetic risks as well as
preventive care patients can perform on their own. Instruction
would likely take place during the evening to accommodate those
with who have work or school during the day. A multidisciplinary
approach that brings input from podiatrists, physicians,
nutritionists, and fitness experts sets up a class to educate patients
on a multitude of different levels. Using a diverse combination of

teaching apparatuses such
as lectures, videos, images,
PowerPoint presentations,
handouts, and group
activities can grasp the
attention of those who
currently lack knowledge
on foot complications.
Specifically, instruction on
what neuropathy is, what
wounds and injuries to
look for, how to properly
wash and take care of their
feet, and what kinds of
shoes are best suitable for
their condition, will be

sufficient to help avoid any further downward progression. After
completing of the course, the goal is to see diabetics that are now
dedicated to handling diabetes with much more aggression. These
publicly funded courses along with those conducted by the
American Diabetes Association endorse mass knowledge for such
a colossal group of uneducated individuals. Health and recovery
centers across the country will provide information to diabetics on
the times and locations of courses being held. Moreover,
podiatrists, physicians, and any other discipline of diabetic treatment will be encouraged to verbally refer
their patients to attend the classes. Advice in the form of human interaction will cause diabetics to feel a
strong interest in preventing their condition from progressing negatively.

Please Pick Up Your Pens


Home health podiatry care that is more readily available will
increase awareness for diabetic foot complications. This solution
will allow patients to obtain private care, treatment, and prevention
knowledge in the comfort of their own home. Without a need for
serious surgery procedure, foot inspections, cleaning, application of
topical moisturizers, orthotics fitting, correct shoe fitting, and
lessons on personal foot examination can all be conducted within
the household at a price that is more affordable than a clinic or
hospital setting.

Home health podiatry care is ideal for individuals who are
physically incapable of making a visit to a licensed podiatry
treatment center due to some form of immobility. This inability to
visit a health center often causes the patient to delay examination
or treatment until it is too late and amputation is inevitable. At this
point, the patient has no choice but to go to the hospital, have an
extended stay, and thus, accumulate high medical costs that would
have been minimized if the problem was identified earlier. Many
diabetics hold strong to the idea that examination is expensive and
treatment is a cheaper option because the expenses are covered by
insurance or by the government. Therefore, free or extremely cost
efficient in home examination should be conducted at a podiatrist’s

discretion to encourage diabetics to see a podiatrist. This podiatrist
will then become in charge of treating the patient’s condition, which
will save money and resources by targeting the issue at an earlier
stage of progression. Through this process, the podiatrist is
reimbursed for their treatment procedure as some form of medical
assistance helps cover the cost for the patient. Overall, this plan
lowers medical costs as the disorder is treated earlier.
People should be able to seek help by calling a number,
sending an email, or submitting their disorder on a website. From
here, various podiatrists can pick and choose their cases, and a
patient plan will be set up prior to treatment but after initial

Home Health Podiatry Care

Care At Your Front Door Step


Suzanne’s Battle with

• • •

Suzanne has been battling with
diabetes for the last 10 years,
prolonging her condition due to
excessive weight and a lack of
regular physical activity. In the
last two years, she has become
quite dormant after retiring from
her career as a schoolteacher. She
spends a majority of her time at
home sitting on the couch or
laying in bed. Suzanne wears
shoes that do not adequately
support the shape or arches of her
foot. Moreover, her footwear
breaks down her skin and
inadequately protects her from
high pressure and various forces.
This factor along with the fact that

she has lack of sensation in her
feet from neuropathy puts her at
risk of developing a foot ulcer.
One day, Suzanne discovers a
large callus on the side of her foot
that has created a bit of deformity.
She panics and decides to call a
podiatrist to set up an in-home
evaluation. The podiatrist visits
her the next day and begins with a
determination of whether or not
she has developed an ulcer.
Luckily for Suzanne, she is not at
the ulcer stage yet and the doctor
gives a detailed explanation on
various preventive measures. This
includes mild cleansing with soap
and water, along with the use of
topical moisturizers to ultimately
promote moist and healthy skin.
The physician also inspects
Suzanne’s shoes for improper fit
and comes to the conclusion that
she must make the switch to high
quality athletic shoes or diabetic
footwear. The podiatrist also
informs Suzanne to avoid home
remedies, hot soaks, heating pads,
and harsh topical products.

In conclusion, the doctor leaves
Suzanne with a list of preventive
measures she should follow daily
and they agree to have follow-up
appointments every two weeks.
“By reinforcing preventive advice
and inspecting the patient’s feet at
routine follow-up visits, the
physician can help the patient
develop and maintain good foot-
care habits” (Armstrong & Lavery,
1998). Over the next month, the
callus and deformity on Suzanne’s
foot slowly but surely disappears
causing her feet to be in healthy
state. Her new diabetic shoes will
prevent the development of any
sores or blisters that could
potentially become ulcers. She is
now extremely knowledgeable on
how to avoid foot complications
even though she has lost sensation
from her shins down. Suzanne
continues to examine her feet
daily and uses appropriate
moisturizing applications.

Preventative Care: Case Study

Proper Footwear

Events that Can Lead to an

1. High glucose levels in blood
2. Nerve damaged extremities
3. Loss of feeling in the foot
4. Cutting foot on an object
5. Lack of blood flow to foot
6. Slow-to-heal Ulcer develops
7. Foot becomes infected
8. Infection spreads
9. Amputation is requiredPodiatrist Care


The solutions proposed will specifically target high medical costs as
well as the unneeded progression of diabetic complications. Shorter
hospitalization stays as well as cheaper treatment procedures will save
billions in insurance costs every year. Furthermore, diabetic patients will
prevent the development of ulcers, which will in turn put a stop to non-
traumatic lower extremity amputations. Our solutions offer convenience
as well as mass communication which helps to reach a large group of
diabetics. This means our various solution proposals will be heard and

explored all over the nation. Once foot examination and foot care is
promoted on an across-the-board level, a trend will ensue, allowing more
and more diabetics to become aware of possible complications before they
arise. With this, diabetics may become more motivated to handle other
aspects of their disease and reverse the effects of the American type 2
diabetes mellitus epidemic.

Will the Message be Heard?

The next logical step is to fill our health and recovery centers with
“foot care” pamphlets providing patients with daily routines they can
begin immediately. Contacting billboard owners, TV stations, radio
stations, magazines, periodicals, and newspapers to begin advertising
sits next in line. Correlating which diabetic footwear companies are
willing to have their products promoted is essential before an effective
advertisement can be made. In the same realm, finding a pool of
podiatrists that are willing to take part in home-health care should be

Stop the Trend Now:

done prior so that advertisements can be fashioned accordingly. For diabetic
educational courses, podiatrists, nutritionists, and fitness experts will be
brought together to plan and potentially teach. Teaming up with the
American Diabetes Association to promote the availability of diabetic
educational courses is the last step in our solution timeline.


American diabetes association: diabetes statistics. (2007). Retrieved from


Armstrong, D. G., & Lavery, L. A. (January 01, 1998). Diabetic foot ulcers: prevention,

diagnosis and classification. American Family Physician, 57, 6, 1325-32.

Fact sheet: diabetes and lower extremity amputations. (2008) Amputee Coalition of

America, Retrieved from


Holzer, S. E. S., Camerota, A., Martens, L., Cuerdon, T., Crystal-Peters, J., & Zagari, M.

(January 01, 1998). Costs and Duration of Care for Lower Extremity Ulcers in

Patients with Diabetes. Clinical Therapeutics,20, 1, 169-181.

O’Loughlin, A., McIntosh, C., Dinneen, S. F., & O’Brien, T. (January 01, 2010). Review

paper: basic concepts to novel therapies: a review of the diabetic foot. The

International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds, 9, 2, 90-102.

Phillips, Quinn. (2009, August 31). Cost of amputations [Web log message]. Retrieved from


U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and

Quality. (2005). Economic and health costs of diabetes (AHRQ Publication No.

05-0034). Rockville, MD: Retrieved from


U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and

Prevention (2007). Diabetes data and trends Atlanta, GA: Retrieved from


Picture References
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Bottom Left: http://www.audioproduction.us/images/header-left.jpg
Bottom Middle: http://www.spiderwebdesignteam.com/imgs/pamphlets_01.jpg
Bottom Right: http://www.faqs.org/photo-dict/photofiles/list/337/688newspaper.jpg

(Educate Yourself)
Middle Left: http://www.educatednation.com/wp-content/uploads/stott-apple-book.jpg
Middle Right: http://www.smartentrepreneur.net/image-files/hand-clipboard.jpg

Picture References
(Home Health Podiatry)
Top: http://onemoneydesign.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/house1.jpg
Middle: http://www.alabamafootdoctor.com/images/foot-care-podiatry.jpg
Bottom: http://www.studyihub.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/podiatrist.jpg

Case Study:
Top Left: http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/files/repository/calag/img6401p17thumb.jpg
Bottom Left: http://www.rwcustommoldedshoes.com/wp-content/shoes-4.jpg
Bottom Right: http://cdn.picapp.com/ftp/Doctor_speaking_withimageId=5282576

Will the Message Be Heard?
Top Right: http://www.travelrepublic.co.uk/images/news/2010-02-05.jpg
Top Left: http://www.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve/2747367/2foot-x-ray.jpg

Stop The Trend Now:
Middle Right: group of doctors and medical.bmp
Middle Left: http://www.dullesfootankle.com/images/slideshow/feet2.jpg


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