Work & discussions 4

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3 Templates attached 

16

Discussions:

Each discussion needs at least one resource

Week 1a:

Of the five areas of math disabilities mentioned in this week’s readings, which do you think would be the most challenging to teach and why? Identify and describe two strategies, specific to your choice, to help students who struggle in this area.

Week 1b:

With a technology-focused generation in the classroom, should we be teaching primarily using technology or is it better to teach math through pencil and paper? Support your argument with research.

Week 2a:

Through your field experiences in this program, what strategies have you observed that have hindered or helped students to generate meaningful questions that develop their mathematical thinking? How will these observations affect your future practice?

Week 2b:

Describe how to generate questions for students while addressing a variety of levels and capabilities of mathematical thinking in an inclusion setting. Explain your choices.

Week 3a:

“We must differentiate our mindset first and our lessons second.” (Dweck, 2012).

What does this saying mean to you? In your own words, what is the difference between differentiation and tracking?

Week 3b:

Describe an experience where you have seen monitoring and adjusting of instruction that met the needs of students. What worked in this situation and how can you apply what was learned in future practice?

Week 4a:

In your field experiences for this course, what type and level of interventions have you observed with students who are struggling in mathematics? Why is it important to understand the tiers of intervention to help differentiate struggles associated with content, application, or delivery (for all content areas)?

Week 4b:

Describe a strategy that you could use if you were teaching a first grader, a third grader, and a sixth grader about geometric shapes/concepts. Explain why differentiation is important in this instance. In addition, describe a strategy that you could use if were teaching, or reinforcing, geometric concepts at the high school level (grades 9-12).

Week 5a:

In Leviticus 27:12 (New Living Translation) it says, “He will assess its value, and his assessment will be final, whether high or low.” Should a single assessment ever be a final measure of a student’s abilities? Why or why not?

Week 5b:

How can you collaborate with colleagues and families to make academic decisions for individuals with exceptionalities? How can you provide feedback and engage individuals with exceptionalities in working toward quality learning and performance?

Week 6a:

What resources and criteria might you use to locate and evaluate the usefulness and appropriateness of a math-related technology resource in a classroom? Include any helpful resources.

Week 6b:

Research suggests that computer-based mathematics programs, in addition to direct teacher instruction, lead to higher success rates for students in their math classes. What are your thoughts about the use of computer-based math programs and how they should be incorporated into the classroom to support teaching?

Assignments:

Week 1: Operations and Algebraic Lesson Plan

It is important for all students, especially students with disabilities, to be exposed to content-based lessons that promote critical thinking and problem solving. There are many areas that a student may struggle in when it comes to mastering complex mathematical tasks. For this reason, it is imperative that teachers are equipped with various instructional strategies for handling these situations.


Part 1: Operation and Algebraic Thinking Lesson Plan

Using the “COE Lesson Plan Template,” design a lesson for the 1-5 grade level of your choice and a corresponding Arizona or other state math standard within the Operation and Algebraic Thinking domain.

Locate four lesson plans that focus on your chosen grade level and math standard from four different websites to review.

Using the lesson plans as resources, design a new operation and algebraic thinking lesson plan that encourages critical thinking. The lesson plan must include differentiated strategies for students who struggle with perception and attention as well as differentiation strategies for students who struggle with memory and retrieval.


Part 2: Instructional Strategies Rationale

In 250-500 words, reflect upon your instructional choices and rationalize the appropriateness of each strategy related to the specified student needs and learning target. Describe how each strategy encourages critical thinking specific to your lesson.

Support your choices with this topic’s readings and a minimum of two scholarly resources. In addition, cite the websites you used as references to develop your lesson plan.

Week 2: Drafting Essential Questions

When students are learning mathematical operations and skills, the concepts and skills will build upon each other. It is important for teachers to plan meaningful learning progressions in their lessons to help with this learning process. Higher-order questioning within a lesson plan can help ensure skill mastery before the next learning concept is introduced.


Part 1: Partial Lesson Plan

Select a 1-5 grade level and a corresponding Arizona College and Career Ready Standard or other state standard based on the Number and Operations in Base Ten domain.

Using the “COE Lesson Plan Template,” complete the lesson plan through the Multiple Means of Engagement section, making sure the activities are supported by the recommendations found in the topic Resources.

Include appropriate support and guidance to help students learn related academic language.


Part 2: DOK Essential Questions

Upon completion of the partial lesson plan, draft 20 essential questions to guide meaningful learning progressions and foster problem-solving for students with disabilities, using the “DOK Questions Template.” Five of the questions should activate prior knowledge and the remaining 15 questions should be based on the progression of the lesson activity, probing the four Depth of Knowledge (DOK) levels.

Using four of the questions you drafted, one from each DOK level, identify the following using the DOK Questions Table within the “DOK Questions Template”:

· Examples of student responses

· Rationale of why chosen question meets DOK level

Week 3: Differentiating Math Activities

Lesson planning is not just about planning what you want your students to know, but also planning for possible situations that might arise and solutions that can be used. Using academic and behavioral data, a teacher must plan for what each child is going to need to help them access the curriculum as well as any individual accommodations that will be needed. The time spent on planning helps to ensure successful delivery of the lesson.

Select a 3-5 grade level and a corresponding Arizona or other state standard based on the Number and Operations-Fractions domain.

Compose an aligning learning objective and design appropriate activities for a selected group of 3-4 students, of varying academic levels, from the “Class Profile.”

Using the “COE Lesson Plan Template,” complete the lesson plan through the Multiple Means of Engagement section, making sure the activities are supported by the recommendations found in the topic Resources.

For your differentiated activities, specifically address:

· Fraction tasks, including area, length, and set/quantity models; or

· Equivalent fractions. In the Multiple Means of Engagement section, draft five questions you could ask students during the lesson that promote conceptual understanding related to fractions.

· In the Multiple Means of Representation section, describe five potential issues and/or roadblocks that might happen while delivering the lesson, based on the needs of the selected group of students. Provide possible solutions to each potential issue.

Week 4: Augmentative and Alternative Communication Devices

There are various methods and tools that can be used to improve the accessibility of curriculum for students with disabilities. Augmentative and alternative communication devices as well as other assistive technologies are often used for this purpose. It is important for teachers to understand the options that are available, and that they advocate for students to be provided with the best possible tools to assist them.


Part 1: Measurement Data Lesson Plan

Select a 1-5 grade level, a corresponding Arizona or other state standard based on the Measurement and Data domain, and a group of 3-4 students from the “Class Profile” who would benefit from the use of augmentative and/or alternative communication devices or other forms of assistive technology.

With your identified learning target and small group in mind, complete a lesson plan, using the “COE Lesson Plan Template,” that specifies applicable assistive technology and includes differentiated activities to facilitate students making measurement comparisons, and

· Using models of measuring units; or

· Using measuring instruments; or

· Representing and interpreting the data.


Part 2: Communication Device Rationale

In addition to your completed lesson plan, justify your augmentative and/or alternative communication devices or other forms of assistive technology choices in a 250-500 word rationale.

Support your choices with 2-3 scholarly resources.

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

Week 5: Benchmark – Algebra Unit Plan

Because lessons do not stop when a student leaves the classroom, purposeful collaboration with other teachers, staff, and families can help reinforce and expand the student’s knowledge and skills. Whenever possible, teachers should try to engage families in ways that encourage them to have their child practice the math skills at home. Having both the teacher and parents/guardians on the same page helps to support the student.

Read the case study to inform the assignment.

Case Study: Fiona

Grade: 9th

Age: 14

It is the beginning of the second semester, and Fiona is having a great deal of difficulty in her mainstream algebra class. Prior to this year, she was receiving instruction in the resource setting. At her eighth grade transition IEP meeting, her parents expressed their wishes that Fiona be in the mainstream algebra class, despite her special education teacher explaining that low reading comprehension negatively affects the understanding of math concepts. Fiona understands basic concepts of algebra but has not mastered the skills needed to move to the higher-level concepts her class is now working on. Currently, her math performance has been measured two years below grade level and her reading performance one year below grade level. Fiona’s general education math teacher has spoken with her parents about the possible need for additional support, and her parents have agreed to help at home, as they do not want her being pulled out for resource at this time.

The following goals have been identified by the special education teacher collaborating with the general education math teacher for Fiona:

1. Simplify addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division equations [e.g., (2x + 6) + (4x + 7) = 6x + 13].

2. Solve expressions with variables (e.g., 3x = -24).

3. Write and solve the algebraic equation in a real-life word problem.


Part 1: Strategies

As the special education teacher, select two researched-based instructional strategies that could be used to help Fiona meet her identified goals.

Instructional strategies should include:

· Explicitly teaching related vocabulary

· The use of the concrete-representational-abstract strategies

· Graphic organizers

· Mnemonic devices

· The use of assistive technology

In 250-500 words, summarize the recommended instructional strategies, rationalizing their appropriateness for Fiona’s goals and ability to help motivate Fiona to meet her goals. Include specific tips for implementation.


Part 2: 3 Day Unit Plan

Design a comprehensive mathematics unit plan based on the goals identified for Fiona. Outline three sequenced lesson plans, using the “3 Day Unit Plan Template.”

Your unit plan must include:

· Appropriate augmentative and alternative communication systems and assistive technology to make the lesson content more accessible.

· Integration of both formative and summative assessments to demonstrate mastery and support the generalization of learning for the student.

· Integration of an appropriate ELA writing standard related to Fiona’s third identified goal.


Part 3: Home Connection

In 250-500 words, explain how you plan to involve Fiona’s parents in meeting her goals. Include a specific at-home activity to help in her continued success.

Support your choices in Parts 1 and 3 with 1-2 scholarly resources.

Week 6: Technology to Support Math Instruction

In special education, the use of technology is a necessity in every classroom. Such technology can take the form of digital resources (high tech) or other non-digital tools (low-tech). Teachers must take the time to be comfortable with the use of both types of technology in their lessons and instruction. While it does not replace quality instruction from the teacher, technology can enhance concepts and make the curriculum more accessible for the students.

Select either an elementary or secondary school context and create an 8-10 slide digital professional development presentation for school staff about high tech and low-tech tools that can be used to enhance math instruction and assessments for students with disabilities. Technology tools should also be useful when teaching Arizona or another state’s standards from the Geometry domain and can include apps, videos, websites, etc. The technology selected should be developmentally appropriate for the school level selected..

The presentation should include the following:

· A detailed description of each technology tool

· An explanation of how each technology tool is useful for teaching to the geometry standards with specific examples

· An explanation of how each technology tool can be used to differentiate instruction and assessments for students with disabilities

· Presenter’s notes, title slide, and reference slide

Support your presentation with 1-2 scholarly resources.



Class Profile

Student Name

English Language Learner

Socioeconomic

Status

Ethnicity

Gender

IEP/504

Other

Age

Reading

Performance Level

Math Performance

Level

Parental

Involvement

Internet Available

at Home

Arturo

Yes

Low SES

Hispanic

Male

No

Tier 2 RTI for Reading

Grade level

One year below grade level

At grade level

Med

No

Bertie

No

Low SES

Asian

Female

No

None

Grade level

One year above grade level

At grade level

Low

Yes

Beryl

No

Mid SES

White

Female

No

NOTE: School does not have gifted program

Grade level

Two years above grade level

At grade level

Med

Yes

Brandie

No

Low SES

White

Female

No

Tier 2 RTI for Math

Grade level

At grade level

One year below grade level

Low

No

Dessie

No

Mid SES

White

Female

No

Tier 2 RTI for Math

Grade level

Grade level

One year below grade level

Med

Yes

Diana

Yes

Low SES

White

Female

No

Tier 2 RTI for Reading

Grade level

One year below grade level

At grade level

Low

No

Donnie

No

Mid SES

African American

Female

No

Hearing Aids

Grade level

At grade level

At grade level

Med

Yes

Eduardo

Yes

Low SES

Hispanic

Male

No

Tier 2 RTI for Reading

Grade level

One year below grade level

At grade level

Low

No

Emma

No

Mid SES

White

Female

No

None

Grade level

At grade level

At grade level

Low

Yes

Enrique

No

Low SES

Hispanic

Male

No

Tier 2 RTI for Reading

One year above grade level

One year below grade level

At grade level

Low

No

Fatma

Yes

Low SES

White

Female

No

Tier 2 RTI for Reading

Grade level

One year below grade level

One year above grade level

Low

Yes

Frances

No

Mid SES

White

Female

No

Diabetic

Grade level

At grade level

At grade level

Med

Yes

Francesca

No

Low SES

White

Female

No

None

Grade level

At grade level

At grade level

High

No

Fredrick

No

Low SES

White

Male

Traumatic Brain Injury

Tier 3 RTI for Reading and Math

One year above grade level

Two years below grade level

Two years below grade level

Very High

No

Ines

No

Low SES

Hispanic

Female

ASD

Tier 2 RTI for Math

Grade level

One year below grade level

One year below grade level

Low

No

Jade

No

Mid SES

African American

Female

No

None

Grade level

At grade level

One year above grade level

High

Yes

Kent

No

High SES

White

Male

Emotion-ally Disabled

None

Grade level

At grade level

One year above grade level

Med

Yes

Lolita

No

Mid SES

Native American/

Pacific Islander

Female

No

None

Grade level

At grade level

At grade level

Med

Yes

Maria

No

Mid SES

Hispanic

Female

No

NOTE: School does not have gifted program

Grade level

At grade level

Two years above grade level

Low

Yes

Mason

No

Low SES

White

Male

No

None

Grade level

At grade level

At grade level

Med

Yes

Nick

No

Low SES

White

Male

No

None

Grade level

One year above grade level

At grade level

Med

No

Noah

No

Low SES

White

Male

No

None

Grade level

At grade level

At grade level

Med

Yes

Sharlene

No

Mid SES

White

Female

No

None

Grade level

One year above grade level

At grade level

Med

Med

Sophia

No

Mid SES

White

Female

No

None

Grade level

At grade level

At grade level

Med

Yes

Stuart

No

Mid SES

White

Male

No

Allergic to peanuts

Grade level

One year above grade level

At grade level

Med

Yes

Terrence

No

Mid SES

White

Male

No

None

Grade level

At grade level

At grade level

Med

Yes

Wade

No

Mid SES

White

Male

No

None

Grade level

At grade level

One year above grade level

Med

Yes

Wayne

No

High SES

White

Male

Intellectually Disabled

Tier 3 RTI for Math

Grade level

One year below grade level

Two years below grade level

High

Yes

Wendell

No

Mid SES

African American

Male

Learning Disabled

Tier 3 RTI for Math

Grade level

One year below grade level

Two years below grade level

Med

Yes

Yung

No

Mid SES

Asian

Male

No

NOTE: School does not have gifted program

One year below grade level

Two years above grade level

Two years above grade level

Low

Yes

© 2019. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.



DOK Questions Table

DOK Level

One Question from that Level

Examples of Student Responses

Rationale of why Chosen Question Meets DOK Level

Level 1: Recall

Level 2: Skill/Concept

Level 3:

Strategic Thinking

Level 4:

Extended Thinking

© 2015. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.



GCU College of Education

LESSON UNIT PLAN TEMPLATE



Section 1: Lesson Preparation

Teacher Candidate Name:

Grade Level:

Unit/Subject:

Title of Unit and Brief Summary:
Create a title for each lesson and 1-2 sentences summarizing the lesson, identifying the central focus based on the content and skills you are teaching.

Classroom and Student Factors/Grouping:
Describe the important classroom factors (demographics and environment) and student factors (IEPs, 504s, ELLs, students with behavior concerns, gifted learners), and the effect of those factors on planning, teaching, and assessing students to facilitate learning for all students. This should be limited to 2-3 sentences and the information should inform the differentiation components of the lesson.

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

National/State Learning Standards

List specific grade-level standards that are the focus of the lesson being presented.

Specific Learning Target(s)/Objectives
Based on state standards, identify what is intended to be measured in learning.

Academic Language
General academic vocabulary and content-specific vocabulary included in the unit.


Unit Resources, Materials, Equipment, and Technology

List all resources, materials, equipment, and technology to be used in the unit.

Depth of Knowledge Lesson Questions

What questions can be posed throughout the lesson to assess all levels of student understanding?

· Level 1: Recall

· Level 2: Skill/Concepts

· Level 3: Strategic Thinking

· Level 4: Extended Thinking


Section 2: Instructional Planning

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Anticipatory Set

How will students’ prior knowledge be activated as well as gain student interest in the upcoming content?

Presentation of Content

Multiple Means of Representation

Describe how content will be presented in various ways to meet the needs of different learners.

Multiple Means of Representation Differentiation

Explain how materials will be differentiated for each of the following groups:

· English Language Learners (ELL)

· Students with special needs

· Students with gifted abilities

· Early finishers (those who finish early and may need additional sources/support)

Application of Content

Multiple Means of Engagement

How will students explore, practice, and apply the content?

Multiple Means of Engagement Differentiation

Explain how materials will be differentiated for each of the following groups:

· English Language Learners (ELL)

· Students with special needs

· Students with gifted abilities

· Early finishers (those who finish early and may need additional sources/support)

Assessment of Content

Multiple Means of Expression

Formative and summative assessments used to monitor student progress and modify instruction.

Multiple Means of Expression Differentiation

Explain how materials will be differentiated for each of the following groups:

· English Language Learners (ELL)

· Students with special needs

· Students with gifted abilities

· Early finishers (those who finish early and may need additional resources/support)

© 2022. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

© 2019. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved



GCU College of Education

LESSON PLAN TEMPLATE

Section 1: Lesson Preparation

Teacher Candidate Name:

Grade Level:

Date:

Unit/Subject:

Instructional Plan Title:

Lesson Summary and Focus:


In 2-3 sentences, summarize the lesson, identifying the central focus based on the content and skills you are teaching.

Classroom and Student Factors/Grouping:


Describe the important classroom factors (demographics and environment) and student factors (IEPs, 504s, ELLs, students with behavior concerns, gifted learners), and the effect of those factors on planning, teaching, and assessing students to facilitate learning for all students. This should be limited to 2-3 sentences and the information should inform the differentiation components of the lesson.

National/State Learning Standards:


Review national and state standards to become familiar with the standards you will be working with in the classroom environment.


Your goal in this section is to identify the standards that are the focus of the lesson being presented. Standards must address learning initiatives from one or more content areas, as well as align with the lesson’s learning targets/objectives and assessments.


Include the standards with the performance indicators and the standard language in its entirety.

Specific Learning Target(s)/Objectives:


Learning objectives are designed to identify what the teacher intends to measure in learning. These must be aligned with the standards. When creating objectives, a learner must consider the following:

·
Who is the audience

·
What action verb will be measured during instruction/assessment

·
What tools or conditions are being used to meet the learning


What is being assessed in the lesson must align directly to the objective created. This should not be a summary of the lesson, but a measurable statement demonstrating what the student will be assessed on at the completion of the lesson. For instance, “understand” is not measureable, but “describe” and “identify” are.


For example:


Given an unlabeled map outlining the 50 states, students will accurately label all state names.

Academic Language


In this section, include a bulleted list of the general academic vocabulary and content-specific vocabulary you need to teach. In a few sentences, describe how you will teach students those terms in the lesson.

Resources, Materials, Equipment, and Technology:


List all resources, materials, equipment, and technology you and the students will use during the lesson. As required by your instructor, add or attach copies of ALL printed and online materials at the end of this template. Include links needed for online resources.

Section 2: Instructional Planning

Anticipatory Set

Your goal in this section is to open the lesson by activating students’ prior knowledge, linking previous learning with what they will be learning in this lesson and gaining student interest for the lesson. Consider various learning preferences (movement, music, visuals) as a tool to engage interest and motivate learners for the lesson.

In a bulleted list, describe the materials and activities you will use to open the lesson. Bold any materials you will need to prepare for the lesson.

For example:

· I will use a visual of the planet Earth and ask students to describe what Earth looks like.

· I will record their ideas on the white board and ask more questions about the amount of water they think is on planet Earth and where the water is located.

Time Needed

Multiple Means of Representation

Learners perceive and comprehend information differently. Your goal in this section is to explain how you would present content in various ways to meet the needs of different learners. For example, you may present the material using guided notes, graphic organizers, video or other visual media, annotation tools, anchor charts, hands-on manipulatives, adaptive technologies, etc.

In a bulleted list, describe the materials you will use to differentiate instruction and how you will use these materials throughout the lesson to support learning. Bold any materials you will need to prepare for the lesson.

For example:

· I will use a Venn diagram graphic organizer to teach students how to compare and contrast the two main characters in the read-aloud story.

· I will model one example on the white board before allowing students to work on the Venn diagram graphic organizer with their elbow partner.

Explain how you will differentiate materials for each of the following groups:

· English language learners (ELL):

· Students with special needs:

· Students with gifted abilities:

· Early finishers (those students who finish early and may need additional resources/support):

Time Needed

Multiple Means of Engagement

Your goal for this section is to outline how you will engage students in interacting with the content and academic language. How will students explore, practice, and apply the content? For example, you may engage students through collaborative group work, Kagan cooperative learning structures, hands-on activities, structured discussions, reading and writing activities, experiments, problem solving, etc.

In a bulleted list, describe the activities you will engage students in to allow them to explore, practice, and apply the content and academic language. Bold any activities you will use in the lesson. Also, include formative questioning strategies and higher order thinking questions you might pose.

For example:

· I will use a matching card activity where students will need to find a partner with a card that has an answer that matches their number sentence.

· I will model one example of solving a number sentence on the white board before having students search for the matching card.

· I will then have the partner who has the number sentence explain to their partner how they got the answer.

Explain how you will differentiate activities for each of the following groups:

· English language learners (ELL):

· Students with special needs:

· Students with gifted abilities:

· Early finishers (those students who finish early and may need additional resources/support):

Time Needed

Multiple Means of Expression

Learners differ in the ways they navigate a learning environment and express what they know. Your goal in this section is to explain the various ways in which your students will demonstrate what they have learned. Explain how you will provide alternative means for response, selection, and composition to accommodate all learners. Will you tier any of these products? Will you offer students choices to demonstrate mastery? This section is essentially differentiated assessment.

In a bulleted list, explain the options you will provide for your students to express their knowledge about the topic. For example, students may demonstrate their knowledge in more summative ways through a short answer or multiple-choice test, multimedia presentation, video, speech to text, website, written sentence, paragraph, essay, poster, portfolio, hands-on project, experiment, reflection, blog post, or skit. Bold the names of any summative assessments.

Students may also demonstrate their knowledge in ways that are more formative. For example, students may take part in thumbs up-thumbs middle-thumbs down, a short essay or drawing, an entrance slip or exit ticket, mini-whiteboard answers, fist to five, electronic quiz games, running records, four corners, or hand raising.
Underline the names of any formative assessments.

For example:

Students will complete a one-paragraph reflection on the in-class simulation they experienced. They will be expected to write the reflection using complete sentences, proper capitalization and punctuation, and utilize an example from the simulation to demonstrate their understanding. Students will also take part in formative assessments throughout the lesson, such as thumbs up-thumbs middle-thumbs down and pair-share discussions, where you will determine if you need to re-teach or re-direct learning.

Explain how you will differentiate assessments for each of the following groups:

· English language learners (ELL):

· Students with special needs:

· Students with gifted abilities:

· Early finishers (those students who finish early and may need additional resources/support):

Time Needed

Extension Activity and/or Homework

Identify and describe any extension activities or homework tasks as appropriate. Explain how the extension activity or homework assignment supports the learning targets/objectives. As required by your instructor, attach any copies of homework at the end of this template.

Time Needed

© 2021-2022. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

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