Write 5 pages thesis on the topic kyoto protocol and its importance to developing countries. Developed countries have been found to be responsible for virtually all of the excess emissions that have accumulated in the atmosphere. According to Baumert, “Among the 25 major global emitters, Australia, the United States, and Canada have the highest per capita emissions ranking 4th, 6th, and 7th respectively. Their per capita emissions are more than twice those of the European Union, six times those of China, and 13 times those of India” (21). In order to find some answers to this rapidly mounting situation, more than 160 nations met in Kyoto, Japan in December 1997. The outcome of the meeting was the Kyoto Protocol – made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Under the Kyoto protocol, developed countries accepted legally binding emission caps and agreed to limit their greenhouse gas emissions relative to the levels emitted in 1990. They are required to achieve this goal within the first commitment period from 2008 to 2012. However, the United States and Australia did not consent to the Kyoto Protocol and are therefore not bound by its emission controls. The primary reason why the United States withdrew from the protocol in 2001 was that it believed that climate change control strategies should be inclusive of the developing nations since the protocol excludes them from any legal obligations towards achieving this goal (Suri 1).
2. Governments are separated into two general categories: developed countries and developing countries. The developed countries have accepted greenhouse gas emission reduction obligations and must submit an annual greenhouse gas inventory. Developing countries on the other hand have no greenhouse gas emission reduction obligations under the principle of “shared but differentiated responsibility” but may participate indirectly towards this goal.
3. Kyoto provides for “flexible mechanisms” which allow developed countries to meet their greenhouse gases emission limitation by purchasing the emission reductions from elsewhere. These can be bought either from financial exchanges such as the new EU Emissions Trading Scheme or from projects which reduce emissions in developing countries under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) or in other developed countries under the Joint Implementation.